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European journal of pharmaceutical sciences : official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences, 129, 181--189
2019

Multi- and unilamellar liposomal encapsulation of ciprofloxacin as ways to modify its phototoxicity and photodegradation.

Zgadzaj, A, Giebułtowicz, J, Gubernator, J, Podbielska, M, Sommer, S, Zaremba-Czogalla, M, Nałęcz-Jawecki, G

Liposomes are vesicular preparations that improve bioavailability of many pharmaceuticals, used even in ocular therapy. In addition, it is well documented that vesicular carriers could affect the photodegradation of molecules encapsulated inside, which is especially important for drugs that may exhibit phototoxicity when they are applied topically on sensitive light-exposed tissues. In this study, we investigated the effect of ciprofloxacin encapsulation into liposomes on its photodegradation, phototoxicity and photogenotoxicity in vitro at the concentration ranges applied in ophthalmology. We tested two variants of liposomes: large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) and multilamellar vesicles (MLV) in comparison to antibiotic solutions without phospholipids (CPX). On the basis of our research, the kinetics of ciprofloxacin photolysis was the fastest in formulations with vesicles with low drug-to-lipid ratio. Depending on vesicles type (drug-to-lipid ratio, MLV or LUV) and time of irradiation different degradants were produced. We proposed structures of the novel ciprofloxacin photolysis products characteristic for vesicles. We did not notice any photoprotective effect of application of ciprofloxacin encapsulation into liposomes, but it significantly affected the photodegradation product profile of the drug and the Photo-Irritation-Factor of the vesicular preparations. In the MTT and micronucleus assays impact of encapsulation was not as clearly visible.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1016/j.ejps.2019.01.006

Annals of laboratory medicine, 39, 91--95
2019

Dose Estimation Curves Following In Vitro X-ray Irradiation Using Blood From Four Healthy Korean Individuals.

Jang, Mi Ae, Han, Eun Ae, Lee, Jin Kyung, Cho, Kwang Hwan, Shin, Hee Bong, Lee, You Kyoung

Cytogenetic dosimetry is useful for evaluating the absorbed dose of ionizing radiation based on analysis of radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations. We created two types of dose-response calibration curves for dicentric chromosomes (DC) and translocations (TR) induced by X-ray irradiation, using an electron linear accelerator, which is the most frequently used medical device in radiotherapy. We irradiated samples from four healthy Korean individuals and compared the resultant curves between individuals. Aberration yields were studied in a total of 31,800 and 31,725 metaphases for DC and TR, respectively, obtained from 11 X-ray irradiation dose-points (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 Gy). The dose-response relationship followed a linear-quadratic equation, Y=C+αD+βD², with the coefficients C=0.0011 for DC and 0.0015 for TR, α=0.0119 for DC and 0.0048 for TR, and β=0.0617 for DC and 0.0237 for TR. Correlation coefficients between irradiation doses and chromosomal aberrations were 0.971 for DC and 0.6 for TR, indicating a very strong and a moderate correlation, respectively. This is the first study implementing cytogenetic dosimetry following exposure to ionizing X-radiation.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.3343/alm.2019.39.1.91

Chemosphere, 215, 703--709
2019

Nanomaterials induce DNA-protein crosslink and DNA oxidation: A mechanistic study with RTG-2 fish cell line and Comet assay modifications.

Klingelfus, T, Disner, G R, Voigt, C L, Alle, L F, Cestari, M M, Leme, D M

Genotoxic effects of nanomaterials (NMs) have been controversially reported in literature, and the mode of action (MoA) via DNA oxidation is cited as the main damage caused by them. Evidence of nano-silver as a crosslinker has been previously reported by the present research team in an in vivo fish genotoxicity study. Thus, aiming to confirm the evidence about NMs as crosslinker agent, the present investigation elucidated the genotoxic potential of NMs and their genotoxic MoA through in vitro assay with RTG-2 cells line (rainbow trout gonadal) by exposure to nano-silver (PVP-coated) and nano-titanium. The types and levels of DNA damage were assessed by the Comet assay (standard alkaline, hOGG1-modified alkaline, and two crosslink-modified alkaline versions). It was demonstrated that the use of the standard alkaline Comet assay alone may inaccurately predict the genotoxicity of NMs since oxidative and crosslink DNA damages were also verified in RTG-2 cells when assessed by the modified versions of the alkaline protocol. More importantly, it was confirmed that both nano-silver and nano-titanium acted as DNA-protein crosslinkers through the Comet assay version with proteinase K. As both nano-silver and nano-titanium present a great risk to aquatic life, these findings reinforce the need of genotoxicity testing strategies that encompass the assessment of different types of DNA damage, in order to ensure an accurate prediction of the genotoxic potential of NMs.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.10.118

Microbiological research, 221, 28--35
2019

Muscodor brasiliensis sp. nov. produces volatile organic compounds with activity against Penicillium digitatum.

Pena, Lorena C, Jungklaus, Gustavo H, Savi, Daiani C, Ferreira-Maba, Lisandra, Servienski, André, Maia, Beatriz H L N S, Annies, Vinicius, Galli-Terasawa, Lygia V, Glienke, Chirlei, Kava, Vanessa

Endophytic fungi belonging to Muscodor genus are considered as promising alternatives to be used in biological control due to the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The strains LGMF1255 and LGMF1256 were isolated from the medicinal plant Schinus terebinthifolius and, by morphological data and phylogenetic analysis, identified as belonging to Muscodor genus. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that strain LGMF1256 is a new species, which is herein introduced as Muscodor brasiliensis sp. nov. The analysis of VOCs production revealed that compounds phenylethyl alcohol, α-curcumene, and E (β) farnesene until now has been reported only from M. brasiliensis, data that supports the classification of strain LGMF1256 as a new species. M. brasiliensis completely inhibited the phytopathogen P. digitatum in vitro. We also evaluated the ability of VOCs from LGMF1256 to inhibit the development of green mold symptoms by inoculation of P. digitatum in detached oranges. M. brasiliensis reduced the severity of diseases in 77%, and showed potential to be used for fruits storage and transportation to prevent the green mold symptoms development, eventually reducing the use of fungicides.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1016/j.micres.2019.01.002

The journal of obstetrics and gynaecology research
2019

Utility and performance of bacterial artificial chromosomes-on-beads assays in chromosome analysis of clinical prenatal samples, products of conception and blood samples.

Rose, Rajiv, Venkatesh, Aishwarya, Pietilä, Sanna, Jabeen, Gazala, Jagadeesh, Sujatha M, Seshadri, Suresh

Chromosome analysis of prenatal samples and products of conception (POC) has conventionally been done by karyotyping (KT). Shortcomings of KT like high turnaround time and culture failure led to technology innovations, such as the bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC)s-on-Beads (BoBs)-based tests, Prenatal BoBs (prenatal samples) and KaryoLite BoBs (POC samples). In the present study, we validated and evaluated the utility of each test on prenatal, POC and blood samples. Study A (n = 305; 259 prenatal + 46 blood/POC) and Study B (n = 176; 146 POC/chorionic vill + 30 blood/amniotic fluid) samples were analyzed using Prenatal and KaryoLite BoBs kits, respectively. KT, array-based Comparative Genomic Hybridization (arrayCGH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were used for comparison of results. Ability of KaryoLite BoBs to identify ring chromosomes was tested. Prenatal BoBs had zero test failure rate and results of all samples were concordant with KT results. Totally four microdeletions were identified by Prenatal BoBs but not by KT. In Study B, all but two POC samples (one triploid and one tetraploid) were concordant with KT and arrayCGH. Partial chromosomal imbalance detection rate was ~64% and KaryoLite BoBs indicated the presence of a ring chromosome in all four cases. The failure rate of KaryoLite BoBs was 3%. We conclude that Prenatal BoBs (common aneuploidies and nine microdeletions) together with KT constitutes more comprehensive prenatal testing compared to FISH and KT. KaryoLite BoBs for aneuploidies of all chromosomes is highly successful in POC analysis and the ability to indicate presence of ring chromosomes improves its clinical sensitivity. Both tests are robust and could also be used for different specimens.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1111/jog.13920

Journal of cellular biochemistry, 120, 4804--4812
2019

Optimization of prostate cancer cell detection using multiplex tyramide signal amplification.

Roy, Sounak, Axelrod, Haley D, Valkenburg, Kenneth C, Amend, Sarah, Pienta, Kenneth J

Approximately 29 000 men die of prostate cancer (PCa) each year in the United States, and 90% to 100% of them are due to incurable bone metastasis. It is difficult to determine (1) when PCa disseminates in the natural history of the disease; (2) where cancer cell disseminates before becoming overt metastatic lesions; and (3) which tumors are aggressive and which are indolent. Tumor tissue and liquid (blood and bone marrow) biopsies provide important information to answer these questions, but significant limitations exist for immunostaining strategies that assess protein expression in these tissues. Classic immunohistochemistry (IHC) assays can typically assess expression of one or two proteins per tissue section. We have developed a novel immunofluorescence staining protocol to detect a panel of seven proteins on PCa tissue from primary tumor biopsies and metastatic lesion autopsy tissue, as well as cancer cells from liquid biopsies. We used a tyramide-based system to amplify the true signal and optimized the protocol to reduce background signal, thereby boosting the signal-to-noise ratio. Any protein-specific antibody in this protocol can be exchanged for a different validated antibody. This protocol therefore, represents a highly informative and flexible assay that can be used to provide important information about cancer tissue for the purpose of improving detection, diagnosis, and treatment.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1002/jcb.28016

The journal of pathology. Clinical research, 5, 63--78
2019

Combined epithelial marker analysis of tumour budding in stage II colorectal cancer.

Slik, Khadija, Blom, Sami, Turkki, Riku, Välimäki, Katja, Kurki, Samu, Mustonen, Harri, Haglund, Caj, Carpén, Olli, Kallioniemi, Olli, Korkeila, Eija, Sundström, Jari, Pellinen, Teijo

Tumour budding predicts survival of stage II colorectal cancer (CRC) and has been suggested to be associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the underlying molecular changes of tumour budding remain poorly understood. Here, we performed multiplex immunohistochemistry (mIHC) to phenotypically profile tumours using known EMT-associated markers: E-cadherin (adherence junctions), integrin β4 (ITGB4; basement membrane), ZO-1 (tight junctions), and pan-cytokeratin. A subpopulation of patients showed high ITGB4 expression in tumour buds, and this coincided with a switch of ITGB4 localisation from the basal membrane of intact epithelium to the cytoplasm of budding cells. Digital image analysis demonstrated that tumour budding with high ITGB4 expression in tissue microarray (TMA) cores correlated with tumour budding assessed from haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) whole sections and independently predicted poor disease-specific survival in two independent stage II CRC cohorts (hazard ratio [HR] = 4.50 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.50-13.5), n = 232; HR = 3.52 (95% CI = 1.30-9.53), n = 72). Furthermore, digitally obtained ITGB4-high bud count in random TMA cores was better associated with survival outcome than visual tumour bud count in corresponding H&E-stained samples. In summary, the mIHC-based phenotypic profiling of human tumour tissue shows strong potential for the molecular characterisation of tumour biology and for the discovery of novel prognostic biomarkers.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1002/cjp2.119

Journal of cell science, 132
2019

Synthetic lethality of cytolytic HSV-1 in cancer cells with ATRX and PML deficiency.

Han, Mingqi, Napier, Christine E, Frölich, Sonja, Teber, Erdahl, Wong, Ted, Noble, Jane R, Choi, Eugene H Y, Everett, Roger D, Cesare, Anthony J, Reddel, Roger R

Cancers that utilize the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) mechanism for telomere maintenance are often difficult to treat and have a poor prognosis. They are also commonly deficient for expression of ATRX protein, a repressor of ALT activity, and a component of promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML NBs) that are required for intrinsic immunity to various viruses. Here, we asked whether ATRX deficiency creates a vulnerability in ALT cancer cells that could be exploited for therapeutic purposes. We showed in a range of cell types that a mutant herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) lacking ICP0, a protein that degrades PML NB components including ATRX, was ten- to one thousand-fold more effective in infecting ATRX-deficient cells than wild-type ATRX-expressing cells. Infection of co-cultured primary and ATRX-deficient cancer cells revealed that mutant HSV-1 selectively killed ATRX-deficient cells. Sensitivity to mutant HSV-1 infection also correlated inversely with PML protein levels, and we showed that ATRX upregulates PML expression at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. These data provide a basis for predicting, based on ATRX or PML levels, which tumors will respond to a selective oncolytic herpesvirus.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1242/jcs.222349

Scientific Reports, 8(1), 1141
2018

First experimental proof of Proton Boron Capture Therapy (PBCT) to enhance protontherapy effectiveness

Cirrone, GAP, Manti, L, Margarone, D, Petringa, G, Giuffrida, L, Minopoli, A, Picciotto, A, Russo, G, Cammarata, F, Pisciotta, P, others

Protontherapy is hadrontherapy’s fastest-growing modality and a pillar in the battle against cancer. Hadrontherapy’s superiority lies in its inverted depth-dose profile, hence tumour-confined irradiation. Protons, however, lack distinct radiobiological advantages over photons or electrons. Higher LET (Linear Energy Transfer) 12C-ions can overcome cancer radioresistance: DNA lesion complexity increases with LET, resulting in efficient cell killing, i.e. higher Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE). However, economic and radiobiological issues hamper 12C-ion clinical amenability. Thus, enhancing proton RBE is desirable. To this end, we exploited the p + 11B → 3α reaction to generate high-LET alpha particles with a clinical proton beam. To maximize the reaction rate, we used sodium borocaptate (BSH) with natural boron content. Boron-Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) uses 10B-enriched BSH for neutron irradiation-triggered alpha particles. We recorded significantly increased cellular lethality and chromosome aberration complexity. A strategy combining protontherapy’s ballistic precision with the higher RBE promised by BNCT and 12C-ion therapy is thus demonstrated.

Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland), 8
2018

Aneuploid CTC and CEC.

Lin, Peter Ping

Conventional circulating tumor cell (CTC) detection technologies are restricted to large tumor cells (> white blood cells (WBCs)), or those unique carcinoma cells with double positive expression of surface epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) for isolation, and intracellular structural protein cytokeratins (CKs) for identification. With respect to detecting the full spectrum of highly heterogeneous circulating rare cells (CRCs), including CTCs and circulating endothelial cells (CECs), it is imperative to develop a strategy systematically coordinating all tri-elements of nucleic acids, biomarker proteins, and cellular morphology, to effectively enrich and comprehensively identify CRCs. Accordingly, a novel strategy integrating subtraction enrichment and immunostaining-fluorescence in situ hybridization (SE-iFISH), independent of cell size variation and free of hypotonic damage as well as anti-EpCAM perturbing, has been demonstrated to enable in situ phenotyping multi-protein expression, karyotyping chromosome aneuploidy, and detecting cytogenetic rearrangements of the gene in non-hematologic CRCs. Symbolic non-synonymous single nucleotide variants (SNVs) of both the gene (P33R) in each single aneuploid CTCs, and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A ( ) tumor suppressor gene in each examined aneuploid CECs, were identified for the first time across patients with diverse carcinomas. Comprehensive co-detecting observable aneuploid CTCs and CECs by SE-iFISH, along with applicable genomic and/or proteomic single cell molecular profiling, are anticipated to facilitate elucidating how those disparate categories of aneuploid CTCs and CECs cross-talk and functionally interplay with tumor angiogenesis, therapeutic drug resistance, tumor progression, and cancer metastasis.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.3390/diagnostics8020026

Nature communications, 9, 1048
2018

Integrative genomic profiling of large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas reveals distinct subtypes of high-grade neuroendocrine lung tumors.

George, Julie, Walter, Vonn, Peifer, Martin, Alexandrov, Ludmil B, Seidel, Danila, Leenders, Frauke, Maas, Lukas, Müller, Christian, Dahmen, Ilona, Delhomme, Tiffany M, Ardin, Maude, Leblay, Noemie, Byrnes, Graham, Sun, Ruping, De Reynies, Aurélien, McLeer-Florin, Anne, Bosco, Graziella, Malchers, Florian, Menon, Roopika, Altmüller, Janine, Becker, Christian, Nürnberg, Peter, Achter, Viktor, Lang, Ulrich, Schneider, Peter M, Bogus, Magdalena, Soloway, Matthew G, Wilkerson, Matthew D, Cun, Yupeng, McKay, James D, Moro-Sibilot, Denis, Brambilla, Christian G, Lantuejoul, Sylvie, Lemaitre, Nicolas, Soltermann, Alex, Weder, Walter, Tischler, Verena, Brustugun, Odd Terje, Lund-Iversen, Marius, Helland, Åslaug, Solberg, Steinar, Ansén, Sascha, Wright, Gavin, Solomon, Benjamin, Roz, Luca, Pastorino, Ugo, Petersen, Iver, Clement, Joachim H, Sänger, Jörg, Wolf, Jürgen, Vingron, Martin, Zander, Thomas, Perner, Sven, Travis, William D, Haas, Stefan A, Olivier, Magali, Foll, Matthieu, Büttner, Reinhard, Hayes, David Neil, Brambilla, Elisabeth, Fernandez-Cuesta, Lynnette, Thomas, Roman K

Pulmonary large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (LCNECs) have similarities with other lung cancers, but their precise relationship has remained unclear. Here we perform a comprehensive genomic (n = 60) and transcriptomic (n = 69) analysis of 75 LCNECs and identify two molecular subgroups: "type I LCNECs" with bi-allelic TP53 and STK11/KEAP1 alterations (37%), and "type II LCNECs" enriched for bi-allelic inactivation of TP53 and RB1 (42%). Despite sharing genomic alterations with adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas, no transcriptional relationship was found; instead LCNECs form distinct transcriptional subgroups with closest similarity to SCLC. While type I LCNECs and SCLCs exhibit a neuroendocrine profile with ASCL1 /DLL3 /NOTCH , type II LCNECs bear TP53 and RB1 alterations and differ from most SCLC tumors with reduced neuroendocrine markers, a pattern of ASCL1 /DLL3 /NOTCH , and an upregulation of immune-related pathways. In conclusion, LCNECs comprise two molecularly defined subgroups, and distinguishing them from SCLC may allow stratified targeted treatment of high-grade neuroendocrine lung tumors.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1038/s41467-018-03099-x

eLife, 7
2018

Distinct roles of ATM and ATR in the regulation of ARP8 phosphorylation to prevent chromosome translocations.

Sun, Jiying, Shi, Lin, Kinomura, Aiko, Fukuto, Atsuhiko, Horikoshi, Yasunori, Oma, Yukako, Harata, Masahiko, Ikura, Masae, Ikura, Tsuyoshi, Kanaar, Roland, Tashiro, Satoshi

Chromosomal translocations are hallmarks of various types of cancers and leukemias. However, the molecular mechanisms of chromosome translocations remain largely unknown. The ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein, a DNA damage signaling regulator, facilitates DNA repair to prevent chromosome abnormalities. Previously, we showed that ATM deficiency led to the 11q23 chromosome translocation, the most frequent chromosome abnormalities in secondary leukemia. Here, we show that ARP8, a subunit of the INO80 chromatin remodeling complex, is phosphorylated after etoposide treatment. The etoposide-induced phosphorylation of ARP8 is regulated by ATM and ATR, and attenuates its interaction with INO80. The ATM-regulated phosphorylation of ARP8 reduces the excessive loading of INO80 and RAD51 onto the breakpoint cluster region. These findings suggest that the phosphorylation of ARP8, regulated by ATM, plays an important role in maintaining the fidelity of DNA repair to prevent the etoposide-induced 11q23 abnormalities.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.7554/eLife.32222

Journal of phycology
2018

Quantitative comparison of taxa and taxon concepts in the diatom genus Fragilariopsis: a case study on using slide scanning, multi-expert image annotation and image analysis in taxonomy.

Beszteri, Bánk, Allen, Claire, Almandoz, Gastón O, Armand, Leanne, Barcena, María Ángeles, Cantzler, Hannelore, Crosta, Xavier, Esper, Oliver, Jordan, Richard W, Kauer, Gerhard, Klaas, Christine, Kloster, Michael, Leventer, Amy, Pike, Jennifer, Rigual Hernández, Andrés S

Semi-automated methods for microscopic image acquisition, image analysis and taxonomic identification have repeatedly received attention in diatom analysis. Less well studied is the question whether and how such methods might prove useful for clarifying the delimitation of species that are difficult to separate for human taxonomists. To try to answer this question, three very similar Fragilariopsis species endemic to the Southern Ocean were targeted in this study: F. obliquecostata, F. ritscheri, and F. sublinearis. A set of 501 extended focus depth specimen images were obtained using a standardized, semi-automated microscopic procedure. Twelve diatomists independently identified these specimen images in order to reconcile taxonomic opinions and agree upon a taxonomic gold standard. Using image analyses, we then extracted morphometric features representing taxonomic characters of the target taxa. The discriminating ability of individual morphometric features was tested visually and statistically, and multivariate classification experiments were performed to test the agreement of the quantitatively-defined taxa assignments with expert consensus opinion. Beyond an updated differential diagnosis of the studied taxa, our study also shows that automated imaging and image analysis procedures for diatoms are coming close to reaching a broad applicability for routine use. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1111/jpy.12767

Radiology, 288, 529--535
2018

Abdominopelvic 1.5-T and 3.0-T MR Imaging in Healthy Volunteers: Relationship to Formation of DNA Double-Strand Breaks.

Suntharalingam, Saravanabavaan, Mladenov, Emil, Sarabhai, Theresia, Wetter, Axel, Kraff, Oliver, Quick, Harald H, Forsting, Michael, Iliakis, Georg, Nassenstein, Kai

Purpose To investigate the relationship between abdominopelvic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in peripheral blood lymphocytes among a cohort of healthy volunteers. Materials and Methods Blood samples were obtained from 40 healthy volunteers (23 women and 17 men; mean age, 27.2 years [range, 21-37 years]) directly before and 5 and 30 minutes after abdominopelvic MR imaging performed at 1.5 T (n = 20) or 3.0 T (n = 20). The number of DNA DSBs in isolated blood lymphocytes was quantified after indirect immunofluorescent staining of a generally accepted DSB marker, ?-H2AX, by means of high-throughput automated microscopy. As a positive control of DSB induction, blood lymphocytes from six volunteers were irradiated in vitro with x-rays at a dose of 1 Gy (70-90 keV). Statistical analysis was performed by using a Friedman test. Results No significant alteration in the frequency of DNA DSB induction was observed after MR imaging (before imaging: 0.22 foci per cell, interquartile range [IQR] = 0.54 foci per cell; 5 minutes after MR imaging: 0.08 foci per cell, IQR = 0.39 foci per cell; 30 minutes after MR imaging: 0.09 foci per cell, IQR = 0.63 foci per cell; P = .057). In vitro radiation of lymphocytes with 1 Gy led to a significant increase in DSBs (0.22 vs 3.43 foci per cell; P = .0312). The frequency of DSBs did not differ between imaging at 1.5 T and at 3.0 T (5 minutes after MR imaging: 0.23 vs 0.06 foci per cell, respectively [P = .57]; 30 minutes after MR imaging: 0.12 vs 0.08 foci per cell [P = .76]). Conclusion Abdominopelvic MR imaging performed at 1.5 T or 3.0 T does not affect the formation of DNA DSBs in peripheral blood lymphocytes.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1148/radiol.2018172453

Molecular cytogenetics, 11, 4
2018

Is cancer progression caused by gradual or simultaneous acquisitions of new chromosomes?

Bloomfield, Mathew, Duesberg, Peter

Foulds defined, "Tumor progression (as a) permanent, irreversible qualitative change in one or more of its characters" (Cancer Res. 1954). Accordingly progressions, such as metastases and acquired drug-resistance, were since found to be subspecies of cancers with conserved and numerous new chromosomes. Here we ask whether cancers acquire numerous new chromosomes gradually or simultaneously in progressions. The currently prevailing theory of Nowell (Science, 1976) holds that unexplained "genetic instability" generates "variant sublines (with) changes in chromosome number" and that "clonal" progressions arise by "stepwise selection of more aggressive sublines". The literature, however, contains many examples of "immediate" selections of progressions with numerous new chromosomes - notably experimentally initiated fusions between cancers and heterologous cells. Furthermore, the stepwise progression theory predicts intermediate sublines of cancers with multiple non-clonal additions of new chromosomes. However, the literature does not describe such intermediates. In view of these inconsistencies with stepwise progression we test here a saltational theory, in which the inherent variability of cancer-specific aneuploidy generates "immediate" progressions with individual clonal karyotypes, transcriptomes and phenotypes in single steps. Using cell fusion as an established controllable model of "immediate" progression, we generated seven immortal murine hybridomas by fusing immortal murine myeloma cells and normal antibody-producing B-cells with polyethylene glycol within a few minutes. These immortal hybridomas contained individual sets of 71 to 105 clonal chromosomes, compared to the 52 chromosomes of the parental myeloma. Thus the myeloma had gained 19 to 53 new clonal chromosomes in seven individual hybridomas in a single step. Furthermore, no stable intermediates were found, as would be predicted by a saltational process. We conclude that random fusions between myelomas and normal B-cells generate clonal hybridomas with multiple, individual chromosomes in single steps. Similar single-step mechanisms may also generate the "late" clonal progressions of cancers with gains of numerous new chromosomes and thus explain the absence of intermediates. Latency would reflect the low probability of rare stochastic progressions. In conclusion, the karyotypic clonality of hybridomas and spontaneous progressions suggests karyotypic alterations as proximate causes of neoplastic progressions. Since cancer-specific aneuploidy catalyzes karyotypic variation, the degree of aneuploidy predicts the clinical risk of neoplastic progression onfirming classical predictions based on DNA content

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1186/s13039-017-0350-4

Cancer letters, 412, 99--107
2018

Quantified postsurgical small cell size CTCs and EpCAM, [email protected], circulating tumor stem cells with cytogenetic abnormalities in hepatocellular carcinoma patients determine cancer relapse.

Wang, Liang, Li, Yilin, Xu, Jing, Zhang, Aiqun, Wang, Xuedong, Tang, Rui, Zhang, Xinjing, Yin, Hongfang, Liu, Manting, Wang, Daisy Dandan, Lin, Peter Ping, Shen, Lin, Dong, Jiahong

Detection of hepatocellular carcinoma circulating tumor cells performed with conventional strategies, is significantly limited due to inherently heterogeneous and dynamic expression of EpCAM, as well as degradation of cytokeratins during epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, which inevitably lead to non-negligible false negative detection of such "uncapturable and invisible" CTCs. A novel SE-iFISH strategy, improved for detection of HCC CTCs in this study, was applied to comprehensively detect, in situ phenotypically and karyotypically characterize hepatocellular and cholangiocarcinoma CTCs (CD45 /CD31 ) in patients subjected to surgical resection. Clinical significance of diverse subtypes of CTC was systematically investigated. Existence of small cell size CTCs (≤5 μm of WBCs) with cytogenetic abnormality of aneuploid chromosome 8, which constituted majority of the detected CTCs in HCC patients, was demonstrated for the first time. The stemness marker EpCAM aneuploid circulating tumor stem cells (CTSCs), and EpCAM small CTCs with trisomy 8, promote tumor growth. Postsurgical quantity of small triploid CTCs (≥5 cells/6 ml blood), multiploid (≥pentasomy 8) CTSCs or CTM (either one ≥ 1) significantly correlated to HCC patients' poor prognosis, indicating that detection of those specific subtypes of CTCs and CTSCs in post-operative patients help predict neoplasm recurrence.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1016/j.canlet.2017.10.004

PloS one, 13, e0190970
2018

Doxorubicin-provoked increase of mitotic activity and concomitant drain of G0-pool in therapy-resistant BE(2)-C neuroblastoma.

Hultman, Isabell, Haeggblom, Linnea, Rognmo, Ingvild, Jansson Edqvist, Josefin, Blomberg, Evelina, Ali, Rouknuddin, Phillips, Lottie, Sandstedt, Bengt, Kogner, Per, Shirazi Fard, Shahrzad, Ährlund-Richter, Lars

In this study chemotherapy response in neuroblastoma (NB) was assessed for the first time in a transplantation model comprising non-malignant human embryonic microenvironment of pluripotent stem cell teratoma (PSCT) derived from diploid bona fide hESC. Two NB cell lines with known high-risk phenotypes; the multi-resistant BE(2)-C and the drug sensitive IMR-32, were transplanted to the PSCT model and the tumour growth was exposed to single or repeated treatments with doxorubicin, and thereafter evaluated for cell death, apoptosis, and proliferation. Dose dependent cytotoxic effects were observed, this way corroborating the experimental platform for this type of analysis. Notably, analysis of doxorubicin-resilient BE(2)-C growth in the PSCT model revealed an unexpected 1,5-fold increase in Ki67-index (p<0.05), indicating that non-cycling (G0) cells entered the cell cycle following the doxorubicin exposure. Support for this notion was obtained also in vitro. A pharmacologically relevant dose (1μM) resulted in a marked accumulation of Ki67 positive BE(2)-C cells (p<0.0001), as well as a >3-fold increase in active cell cycle (i.e. cells positive staining for PH3 together with incorporation of EdU) (p<0.01). Considering the clinical challenge for treating high-risk NB, the discovery of a therapy-provoked growth-stimulating effect in the multi-resistant and p53-mutated BE(2)-C cell line, but not in the drug-sensitive p53wt IMR-32 cell line, warrants further studies concerning generality and clinical significance of this new observation.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1371/journal.pone.0190970

Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 59, 561--571
2018

A Novel C-Terminal Mutation in Gsdma3 (C+/H-) Leads to Alopecia and Corneal Inflammatory Response in Mice.

Swirski, Sebastian, Röger, Carsten, Pienkowska-Schelling, Aldona, Ihlenburg, Cynthia, Fischer, Gösta, May, Oliver, Vorm, Mariann, Owczarek-Lipska, Marta, Neidhardt, John

Mutations in the gene encoding Gasdermin A3 (Gsdma3) have been described to cause severe skin phenotypes, including loss of sebaceous glands and alopecia, in mice. We discovered a novel C-terminal mutation in Gsdma3 in a new mouse line and characterized a less frequently reported corneal phenotype, likely caused by degeneration of Meibomian glands of the inner eyelid. We used histologic methods to evaluate the effects of the C+/H- mutation on sebaceous gland and skin morphology as well as Meibomian glands of the inner eyelid and corneal tissue. Chromosomal aberrations were excluded by karyogram analyses. The mutation was identified by Sanger sequencing of candidate genes. Analyses of skin samples from affected mice confirmed the frequently reported phenotypes associated with mutations in Gsdma3: Degeneration of sebaceous glands and complete loss of pelage. Immunologic staining of corneal samples suggested an inflammatory response with signs of neovascularization in half of the affected older mice. While the corneal phenotype was observed at irregular time points, mainly after 6 months, its appearance coincided with a degeneration of Meibomian glands in the eyelids of affected animals. The mutation described herein is associated with inflammation and neovascularization of corneal tissue. Simultaneous degeneration of Meibomian glands in affected animals suggested a change in tear-film composition as the underlying cause for the corneal phenotype. Our data further support that different pathogenic mechanisms underlie some of the reported mutations in Gsdma3.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1167/iovs.17-22658

Pathology, research and practice, 214, 318--324
2018

Osteosarcoma arising in fibrous dysplasia, confirmed by mutational analysis of GNAS gene.

Sugiura, Yoshiya, Kanda, Hiroaki, Motoi, Noriko, Nomura, Kimie, Inamura, Kentaro, Okada, Erina, Matsumoto, Haruna, Shimoji, Takashi, Matsumoto, Seiichi, Nakayama, Jun, Takazawa, Yutaka, Ishikawa, Yuichi, Machinami, Rikuo

Malignancy arising in fibrous dysplasia (FD) is rare. Approximately 100 cases have been reported so far, and osteosarcoma is the most common malignancy. We report a case of osteosarcoma in a 33-year-old Japanese man with monostotic FD of the right proximal femur from the age of 16 years. Histologically, relatively well-differentiated osteosarcoma was found in the FD lesion. Immunohistochemically, the FD was negative for p53 or MDM2, and the MIB-1 index was less than 1%, whereas the osteosarcoma was positive for both p53 and MDM2, and the MIB-1 index was up to 15%. The FD and osteosarcoma were negative for CDK4. Fluorescent in situ hybridization assay showed no amplification of the MDM2 gene, indicating that the osteosarcoma was a conventional osteosarcoma, not an intraosseous well-differentiated type. The original cell of malignancy in FD is unclear. Malignancy can be potentially derived from dysplastic cells in the area of the FD or cells in the adjacent normal tissues. GNAS gene mutation has recently been reported for fibrous dysplasia and the mutation is highly specific to fibrous dysplasia among fibro-osseous lesions including osteosarcoma. In this case, point mutations of GNAS were found in the FD and osteosarcoma but not in the adjacent normal tissues, suggesting that osteosarcoma was derived from the spindle cells of FD. This is the first report to clearly show that osteosarcoma is derived from the spindle cells in fibrous dysplasia (FD).

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1016/j.prp.2017.10.018

Mutation research, 834, 35--41
2018

Reprint of: A three-dimensional in vitro HepG2 cells liver spheroid model for genotoxicity studies.

Shah, Ume-Kulsoom, Mallia, Jefferson de Oliveira, Singh, Neenu, Chapman, Katherine E, Doak, Shareen H, Jenkins, Gareth J S

The liver's role in metabolism of chemicals makes it an appropriate tissue for toxicity testing. Current testing protocols, such as animal testing and two-dimensional liver cell systems, offer limited resemblance to in vivo liver cell behaviour, in terms of gene expression profiles and metabolic competence; thus, they do not always accurately predict human toxicology. In vitro three-dimensional liver cell models offer an attractive alternative. This study reports on the development of a 3D liver model, using HepG2 cells, by a hanging-drop technique, with a focus on evaluating spheroid growth characteristics and suitability for genotoxicity testing. The cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay protocol was adapted to enable micronucleus (MN) detection in the 3D spheroid models. This involved evaluating the difference between hanging vs non-hanging drop positions for dosing of the test agents and comparison of automated Metafer scoring with manual scoring for MN detection in HepG2 spheroids. The initial seeding density, used for all experiments, was 5000 cells/20 μl drop hanging spheroids, harvested on day 4, with >75% cell viability. Albumin secretion (7.8 g/l) and both CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 gene expression were highest in the 3D environment at day 4. Exposure to metabolically activated genotoxicants for 24 h resulted in a 6-fold increase in CYP1A1 enzyme activity (3 μM B[a]P) and a 30-fold increase in CYP1A2 enzyme activity (5 μM PhIP) in 3D hanging spheroids. MN inductions in response to B[a]P or PhIP were 2-fold and 3-fold, respectively, and were greater in 3D hanging spheroids than in 2D format, showing that hanging spheroids are more sensitive to genotoxic agents. HepG2 hanging-drop spheroids are an exciting new alternative system for genotoxicity studies, due to their improved structural and physiological properties, relative to 2D cultures.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1016/j.mrgentox.2018.06.020