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Cancer genomics & proteomics, 15, 91–114
March, 2018

Characterization of Camptothecin-induced Genomic Changes in the Camptothecin-resistant T-ALL-derived Cell Line CPT-K5.

Kjeldsen, Eigil, Nielsen, Christine J F, Roy, Amit, Tesauro, Cinzia, Jakobsen, Ann-Katrine, Stougaard, Magnus, Knudsen, Birgitta R

Acquisition of resistance to topoisomerase I (TOP1)-targeting camptothecin (CPT) derivatives is a major clinical problem. Little is known about the underlying chromosomal and genomic mechanisms. We characterized the CPT-K5 cell line expressing mutant CPT-resistant TOP1 and its parental T-cell derived acute lymphoblastic leukemia CPT-sensitive RPMI-8402 cell line by karyotyping and molecular genetic methods, including subtractive oligo-based array comparative genomic hybridization (soaCGH) analysis. Karyotyping revealed that CPT-K5 cells had acquired additional structural aberrations and a reduced modal chromosomal number compared to RPMI-8402. soaCGH analysis identified vast copy number alterations and >200 unbalanced DNA breakpoints distributed unevenly across the chromosomal complement in CPT-K5. In addition, the short tandem repeat alleles were found to be highly different between CPT-K5 and its parental cell line. We identified copy number alterations affecting genes important for maintaining genome integrity and reducing CPT-induced DNA damage. We show for the first time that short tandem repeats are targets for TOP1 cleavage, that can be differentially stimulated by CPT.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.21873/cgp.20068

Journal of clinical microbiology, 56
March, 2018

Automated Interpretation of Blood Culture Gram Stains by Use of a Deep Convolutional Neural Network.

Smith, Kenneth P, Kang, Anthony D, Kirby, James E

<p>Microscopic interpretation of stained smears is one of the most operator-dependent and time-intensive activities in the clinical microbiology laboratory. Here, we investigated application of an automated image acquisition and convolutional neural network (CNN)-based approach for automated Gram stain classification. Using an automated microscopy platform, uncoverslipped slides were scanned with a 40× dry objective, generating images of sufficient resolution for interpretation. We collected 25,488 images from positive blood culture Gram stains prepared during routine clinical workup. These images were used to generate 100,213 crops containing Gram-positive cocci in clusters, Gram-positive cocci in chains/pairs, Gram-negative rods, or background (no cells). These categories were targeted for proof-of-concept development as they are associated with the majority of bloodstream infections. Our CNN model achieved a classification accuracy of 94.9% on a test set of image crops. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis indicated a robust ability to differentiate between categories with an area under the curve of &gt;0.98 for each. After training and validation, we applied the classification algorithm to new images collected from 189 whole slides without human intervention. Sensitivity and specificity were 98.4% and 75.0% for Gram-positive cocci in chains and pairs, 93.2% and 97.2% for Gram-positive cocci in clusters, and 96.3% and 98.1% for Gram-negative rods. Taken together, our data support a proof of concept for a fully automated classification methodology for blood-culture Gram stains. Importantly, the algorithm was highly adept at identifying image crops with organisms and could be used to present prescreened, classified crops to technologists to accelerate smear review. This concept could potentially be extended to all Gram stain interpretive activities in the clinical laboratory.</p>

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1128/JCM.01521-17

Frontiers in neuroscience, 12, 55
March, 2018

Safety and Efficacy of Scanning Ultrasound Treatment of Aged APP23 Mice.

Leinenga, Gerhard, Götz, Jürgen

<p>Deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide leads to amyloid plaques that together with tau deposits characterize the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). In modeling this pathology, transgenic animals such as the APP23 strain, that expresses a mutant form of the amyloid precursor protein found in familial cases of AD, have been instrumental. In previous studies, we have shown that repeated treatments with ultrasound in a scanning mode (termed scanning ultrasound or SUS) were effective in removing Aβ and restoring memory functions, without the need for a therapeutic agent such as an Aβ antibody. Considering that age is the most important risk factor for AD, we extended this study in which the mice were only 12 months old at the time of treatment by assessing a cohort of 2 year-old mice. Interestingly, at this age, APP23 mice are characterized by cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) and the presence of occasional microbleeds. We found that SUS in aged mice that have been exposed to four SUS sessions that were spread out over 8 weeks and analyzed 4 weeks later did not show evidence of increased CAA or microbleeds. Furthermore, amyloid was reduced as assessed by methoxy-XO4 fluorescence. In addition, plaque-associated microglia were more numerous in SUS treated mice. Together this adds to the notion that SUS may be a treatment modality for human neurodegenerative diseases.</p>

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.3389/fnins.2018.00055

British journal of pharmacology
March, 2018


Guerrero-Alba, Raquel, Valdez-Morales, Eduardo Emmanuel, Jiménez-Vargas, Nestor Nivardo, Bron, Romke, Poole, Daniel, Reed, David, Castro, Joel, Campaniello, Melissa, Hughes, Patrick A, Brierley, Stuart M, Bunnett, Nigel, Lomax, Alan E, Vanner, Stephen

<p>To better understand opioid signaling in visceral nociceptors, we examined the expression and selective activation of mu (MOR) and delta opioid receptors (DOR) by dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons innervating the mouse colon. DRG neurons projecting to the colon were identified by retrograde tracing. DOR-GFP reporter mice, in situ hybridization, single-cell RT-PCR, and MOR-specific antibodies were used to characterize expression of MOR and DOR. Voltage-gated Ca currents and neuronal excitability were recorded in small diameter nociceptive neurons (capacitance &lt; 30pF) by patch clamp and ex vivo single-unit afferent recordings were obtained from the colon. In situ hybridization of oprm1 expression in Fast Blue-labeled DRG neurons was observed in 61% of neurons. MOR and DOR were expressed by 36-46% of colon DRG neurons, and co-expressed by ~25 % of neurons. MOR and DOR agonists inhibited Ca currents in DRG and these effects were blocked by opioid antagonists. One or both agonists inhibited action potential firing by colonic afferent endings. Incubation of neurons with supernatants from inflamed colon segments inhibited Ca currents and neuronal excitability. The MOR but not the DOR antagonist, inhibited the supernatant effects on Ca currents, whereas both antagonists inhibited their actions on neuronal excitability. A significant number of small diameter colonic nociceptors co-express MOR and DOR and are inhibited by agonists and endogenous opioids in inflamed tissues. Thus, opioids that act at MOR or DOR or their heterodimers may be effective in the treatment of visceral pain.</p>

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1111/bph.14222

Scientific reports, 8, 2286
February, 2018

DNA damage in leukocytes after internal ex-vivo irradiation of blood with the α-emitter Ra-223.

Schumann, Sarah, Eberlein, Uta, Muhtadi, Razan, Lassmann, Michael, Scherthan, Harry

<p>Irradiation with high linear energy transfer α-emitters, like the clinically used Ra-223 dichloride, severely damages cells and induces complex DNA damage including closely spaced double-strand breaks (DSBs). As the hematopoietic system is an organ-at-risk for the treatment, knowledge about Ra-223-induced DNA damage in blood leukocytes is highly desirable. Therefore, 36 blood samples from six healthy volunteers were exposed ex-vivo (in solution) to different concentrations of Ra-223. Absorbed doses to the blood were calculated assuming local energy deposition of all α- and β-particles of the decay, ranging from 0 to 142 mGy. γ-H2AX+53BP1 co-staining and analysis was performed in leukocytes isolated from the irradiated blood samples. For DNA damage quantification, leukocyte samples were screened for occurrence of α-induced DNA damage tracks and small γ-H2AX+53BP1 DSB foci. This revealed a linear relationship between the frequency of γ-induced γ-H2AX damage tracks and the absorbed dose to the blood, while the frequency of small γ-H2AX+53BP1 DSB foci indicative of β-irradiation was similar to baseline values, being in agreement with a negligible β-contribution (3.7%) to the total absorbed dose to the blood. Our calibration curve will contribute to the biodosimetry of Ra-223-treated patients and early after incorporation of α-emitters.</p>

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1038/s41598-018-20364-7

TAG. Theoretical and applied genetics. Theoretische und angewandte Genetik, 131, 389–406
February, 2018

Characterisation of Thinopyrum bessarabicum chromosomes through genome-wide introgressions into wheat.

Grewal, Surbhi, Yang, Caiyun, Edwards, Stella Hubbart, Scholefield, Duncan, Ashling, Stephen, Burridge, Amanda J, King, Ian P, King, Julie

<p>Genome-wide introgressions of Thinopyrum bessarabicum into wheat resulted in 12 recombinant lines. Cytological and molecular techniques allowed mapping of 1150 SNP markers across all seven chromosomes of the J genome. Thinopyrum bessarabicum (2n = 2x = 14, JJ) is an important source for new genetic variation for wheat improvement due to its salinity tolerance and disease resistance. Its practical utilisation in wheat improvement can be facilitated through development of genome-wide introgressions leading to a variety of different wheat-Th . bessarabicum translocation lines. In this study, we report the generation of 12 such wheat-Th . bessarabicum recombinant lines, through two different crossing strategies, which were characterized using sequential single colour and multi-colour genomic in situ hybridization (sc-GISH and mc-GISH), multi-colour fluorescent in situ hybridization (mc-FISH) and single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) DNA markers. We also detected 13 lines containing different Th. bessarabicum chromosome aberrations through sc-GISH. Through a combination of molecular and cytological analysis of all the 25 lines containing Th. bessarabicum recombinants and chromosome aberrations we were able to physically map 1150 SNP markers onto seven Th. bessarabicum J chromosomes which were divided into 36 segmental blocks. Comparative analysis of the physical map of Th. bessarabicum and the wheat genome showed that synteny between the two species is highly conserved at the macro-level and confirmed that Th. bessarabicum contains the 4/5 translocation also present in the A genome of wheat. These wheat-Th . bessarabicum recombinant lines and SNP markers provide a useful genetic resource for wheat improvement with the latter having a wider impact as a tool for detection of introgressions from other Thinopyrum species containing the J or a closely-related genome such as Thinopyrum intermedium (J<sup>r</sup>J<sup>r</sup>J<sup>vs</sup>J<sup>vs</sup>StSt) and Thinopyrum elongatum (E<sup>e</sup>E<sup>e</sup>), respectively.</p>

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1007/s00122-017-3009-y

Scientific reports, 8, 3122
February, 2018

Phaeophleospora vochysiae Savi & Glienke sp. nov. Isolated from Vochysia divergens Found in the Pantanal, Brazil, Produces Bioactive Secondary Metabolites.

Savi, Daiani C, Shaaban, Khaled A, Gos, Francielly Maria Wilke Ramos, Ponomareva, Larissa V, Thorson, Jon S, Glienke, Chirlei, Rohr, Jürgen

<p>Microorganisms associated with plants are highly diverse and can produce a large number of secondary metabolites, with antimicrobial, anti-parasitic and cytotoxic activities. We are particularly interested in exploring endophytes from medicinal plants found in the Pantanal, a unique and widely unexplored wetland in Brazil. In a bio-prospecting study, strains LGMF1213 and LGMF1215 were isolated as endophytes from Vochysia divergens, and by morphological and molecular phylogenetic analyses were characterized as Phaeophleospora vochysiae sp. nov. The chemical assessment of this species reveals three major compounds with high biological activity, cercoscosporin (1), isocercosporin (2) and the new compound 3-(sec-butyl)-6-ethyl-4,5-dihydroxy-2-methoxy-6-methylcyclohex-2-enone (3). Besides the isolation of P. vochysiae as endophyte, the production of cercosporin compounds suggest that under specific conditions this species causes leaf spots, and may turn into a pathogen, since leaf spots are commonly caused by species of Cercospora that produce related compounds. In addition, the new compound 3-(sec-butyl)-6-ethyl-4,5-dihydroxy-2-methoxy-6-methylcyclohex-2-enone showed considerable antimicrobial activity and low cytotoxicity, which needs further exploration.</p>

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1038/s41598-018-21400-2

Journal of neurotrauma, 35, 671–680
February, 2018

Erythropoietin Attenuates the Brain Edema Response after Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury.

Blixt, Jonas, Gunnarson, Eli, Wanecek, Michael

<p>Erythropoietin (EPO) has neuroprotective effects in multiple central nervous system (CNS) injury models; however EPO's effects on traumatic brain edema are elusive. To explore EPO as an intervention in traumatic brain edema, male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were subjected to blunt, controlled traumatic brain injury (TBI). Animals were randomized to EPO 5000 IU/kg or saline (control group) intraperitoneally within 30 min after trauma and once daily for 4 consecutive days. Brain MRI, immunohistofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, and quantitative protein analysis were performed at days 1 and 4 post- trauma. EPO significantly prevented the loss of the tight junction protein zona occludens 1 (ZO-1) observed in control animals after trauma. The decrease of ZO-1 in the control group was associated with an immunoglobulin (Ig)G increase in the perilesional parenchyma, indicating blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction and increased permeability. EPO treatment attenuated decrease in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) after trauma, suggesting a reduction of cytotoxic edema, and reduced the IgG leakage, indicating that EPO contributed to preserve BBB integrity and attenuated vasogenic edema. Animals treated with EPO demonstrated conserved levels of aquaporin 4 (AQP4) protein expression in the perilesional area, whereas control animals showed a reduction of AQP4. We show that post TBI administration of EPO decreases early cytotoxic brain edema and preserves structural and functional properties of the BBB, leading to attenuation of the vasogenic edema response. The data support that the mechanisms involve preservation of the tight junction protein ZO-1 and the water channel AQP4, and indicate that treatment with EPO may have beneficial effects on the brain edema response following TBI.</p>

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1089/neu.2017.5015

Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 59, 561–571
January, 2018

A Novel C-Terminal Mutation in Gsdma3 (C+/H-) Leads to Alopecia and Corneal Inflammatory Response in Mice.

Swirski, Sebastian, Röger, Carsten, Pienkowska-Schelling, Aldona, Ihlenburg, Cynthia, Fischer, Gösta, May, Oliver, Vorm, Mariann, Owczarek-Lipska, Marta, Neidhardt, John

<p>Mutations in the gene encoding Gasdermin A3 (Gsdma3) have been described to cause severe skin phenotypes, including loss of sebaceous glands and alopecia, in mice. We discovered a novel C-terminal mutation in Gsdma3 in a new mouse line and characterized a less frequently reported corneal phenotype, likely caused by degeneration of Meibomian glands of the inner eyelid. We used histologic methods to evaluate the effects of the C+/H- mutation on sebaceous gland and skin morphology as well as Meibomian glands of the inner eyelid and corneal tissue. Chromosomal aberrations were excluded by karyogram analyses. The mutation was identified by Sanger sequencing of candidate genes. Analyses of skin samples from affected mice confirmed the frequently reported phenotypes associated with mutations in Gsdma3: Degeneration of sebaceous glands and complete loss of pelage. Immunologic staining of corneal samples suggested an inflammatory response with signs of neovascularization in half of the affected older mice. While the corneal phenotype was observed at irregular time points, mainly after 6 months, its appearance coincided with a degeneration of Meibomian glands in the eyelids of affected animals. The mutation described herein is associated with inflammation and neovascularization of corneal tissue. Simultaneous degeneration of Meibomian glands in affected animals suggested a change in tear-film composition as the underlying cause for the corneal phenotype. Our data further support that different pathogenic mechanisms underlie some of the reported mutations in Gsdma3.</p>

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1167/iovs.17-22658

Scientific reports, 8, 1032
January, 2018

The ten-year evolutionary trajectory of a highly recurrent paediatric high grade neuroepithelial tumour with MN1:BEND2 fusion.

Burford, Anna, Mackay, Alan, Popov, Sergey, Vinci, Maria, Carvalho, Diana, Clarke, Matthew, Izquierdo, Elisa, Avery, Aimee, Jacques, Thomas S, Ingram, Wendy J, Moore, Andrew S, Frawley, Kieran, Hassall, Timothy E, Robertson, Thomas, Jones, Chris

<p>Astroblastomas are rare brain tumours which predominate in children and young adults, and have a controversial claim as a distinct entity, with no established WHO grade. Reports suggest a better outcome than high grade gliomas, though they frequently recur. Recently, they have been described to overlap with a newly-discovered group of tumours described as'high grade neuroepithelial tumour with MN1 alteration' (CNS HGNET-MN1), defined by global methylation patterns and strongly associated with gene fusions targeting MN1. We have studied a unique case of astroblastoma arising in a 6 year-old girl, with multiple recurrences over a period of 10 years, with the pathognomonic MN1:BEND2 fusion. Exome sequencing allowed for a phylogenetic reconstruction of tumour evolution, which when integrated with clinical, pathological and radiological data provide for a detailed understanding of disease progression, with initial treatment driving tumour dissemination along four distinct trajectories. Infiltration of distant sites was associated with a later genome doubling, whilst there was evidence of convergent evolution of different lesions acquiring distinct alterations targeting NF-κB. These data represent an unusual opportunity to understand the evolutionary history of a highly recurrent childhood brain tumour, and provide novel therapeutic targets for astroblastoma/CNS HGNET-MN1.</p>

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1038/s41598-018-19389-9

Scientific Reports, 8(1), 1141

First experimental proof of Proton Boron Capture Therapy (PBCT) to enhance protontherapy effectiveness

Cirrone, GAP, Manti, L, Margarone, D, Petringa, G, Giuffrida, L, Minopoli, A, Picciotto, A, Russo, G, Cammarata, F, Pisciotta, P, others

Protontherapy is hadrontherapy’s fastest-growing modality and a pillar in the battle against cancer. Hadrontherapy’s superiority lies in its inverted depth-dose profile, hence tumour-confined irradiation. Protons, however, lack distinct radiobiological advantages over photons or electrons. Higher LET (Linear Energy Transfer) 12C-ions can overcome cancer radioresistance: DNA lesion complexity increases with LET, resulting in efficient cell killing, i.e. higher Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE). However, economic and radiobiological issues hamper 12C-ion clinical amenability. Thus, enhancing proton RBE is desirable. To this end, we exploited the p + 11B → 3α reaction to generate high-LET alpha particles with a clinical proton beam. To maximize the reaction rate, we used sodium borocaptate (BSH) with natural boron content. Boron-Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) uses 10B-enriched BSH for neutron irradiation-triggered alpha particles. We recorded significantly increased cellular lethality and chromosome aberration complexity. A strategy combining protontherapy’s ballistic precision with the higher RBE promised by BNCT and 12C-ion therapy is thus demonstrated.

Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland), 8

Aneuploid CTC and CEC.

Lin, Peter Ping

<p>Conventional circulating tumor cell (CTC) detection technologies are restricted to large tumor cells (&gt; white blood cells (WBCs)), or those unique carcinoma cells with double positive expression of surface epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) for isolation, and intracellular structural protein cytokeratins (CKs) for identification. With respect to detecting the full spectrum of highly heterogeneous circulating rare cells (CRCs), including CTCs and circulating endothelial cells (CECs), it is imperative to develop a strategy systematically coordinating all tri-elements of nucleic acids, biomarker proteins, and cellular morphology, to effectively enrich and comprehensively identify CRCs. Accordingly, a novel strategy integrating subtraction enrichment and immunostaining-fluorescence in situ hybridization (SE-iFISH), independent of cell size variation and free of hypotonic damage as well as anti-EpCAM perturbing, has been demonstrated to enable in situ phenotyping multi-protein expression, karyotyping chromosome aneuploidy, and detecting cytogenetic rearrangements of the gene in non-hematologic CRCs. Symbolic non-synonymous single nucleotide variants (SNVs) of both the gene (P33R) in each single aneuploid CTCs, and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (<em>CDKN2A</em>) tumor suppressor gene in each examined aneuploid CECs, were identified for the first time across patients with diverse carcinomas. Comprehensive co-detecting observable aneuploid CTCs and CECs by SE-iFISH, along with applicable genomic and/or proteomic single cell molecular profiling, are anticipated to facilitate elucidating how those disparate categories of aneuploid CTCs and CECs cross-talk and functionally interplay with tumor angiogenesis, therapeutic drug resistance, tumor progression, and cancer metastasis.</p>

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.3390/diagnostics8020026

Journal of clinical pathology

KRAS fluorescence in situ hybridisation testing for the detection and diagnosis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

Shiroma, Noriyuki, Arihiro, Koji, Oda, Miyo, Orita, Makoto

The aim of our study was to analyse correlations between mutation status, chromosomal changes that affect status in cells from pancreatic tumours. We collected 69 cases of surgically resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) and seven cases of chronic pancreatitis (CP). Chromosomal abnormalities of and CEP12 were detected using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). The number of CEP12 signals per cell ranged from 1.78 to 2.04 and 1.46 to 4.88 in CP and PDA samples, respectively, while the number of signals per cell ranged from 1.94 to 2.06 and 1.88 to 8.18 in CP and PDA samples, respectively. The 'chromosomal instability index', which was defined as the percentage of cells with any chromosomal abnormality, was over 5.7 times greater in PDA than in CP. We performed mutation analysis by direct sequencing and found that tumours with mutations have a significantly higher mean signal per cell from PDA samples compared with tumours with wild-type amplification was noted in 10% of cases. Although we found that lymph node metastasis and distal metastasis of PDA were more frequent in cases with amplification, this was not correlated with overall survival. Using a threshold of 40%, we found that the chromosomal instability index robustly discriminated PDA cells from CP cells. Based on these findings, we concluded that FISH testing of using cytology samples may represent an accurate approach for the diagnosis of PDA.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1136/jclinpath-2018-205002

Journal of medical entomology, 55, 575--586

Description of Larval Instars To Fill a Gap in Forensic Entomology: The Larvae of Paralucilia pseudolyrcea (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

Da Silva, S M, Vairo, K P, Moura, M O

A fundamental assumption of forensic entomology for estimating the postmortem interval is that insect species are accurately identified, which depends on diagnostic morphological characters. Larvae of the blow fly Paralucilia pseudolyrcea (Mello, 1969) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) were sampled from four corpses in the state of Paraná, Brazil, but despite the forensic importance of this species, morphological data for the identification of its larval instars are lacking, limiting its usefulness in such cases. Thus, the main goal of this study was to describe the larval instars of P. pseudolyrcea. The material was obtained from a colony established by larvae collected from a corpse of a murder case. Overall, the distribution of spines is a key character for identifying this species in the first, second and third instars. Other characteristics, such as the presence of an accessory oral sclerite, the small cirri, the number of lobes of the anterior spiracle and the morphology of posterior spiracles, separates P. pseudolyrcea from other necrophagous blow flies. The detailed morphological description provided here facilitates the identification of larval instars of P. pseudolyrcea and their differentiation from those of other calliphorid species.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1093/jme/tjx257

Molecular cytogenetics, 11, 4

Is cancer progression caused by gradual or simultaneous acquisitions of new chromosomes?

Bloomfield, Mathew, Duesberg, Peter

Foulds defined, "Tumor progression (as a) permanent, irreversible qualitative change in one or more of its characters" (Cancer Res. 1954). Accordingly progressions, such as metastases and acquired drug-resistance, were since found to be subspecies of cancers with conserved and numerous new chromosomes. Here we ask whether cancers acquire numerous new chromosomes gradually or simultaneously in progressions. The currently prevailing theory of Nowell (Science, 1976) holds that unexplained "genetic instability" generates "variant sublines (with) changes in chromosome number" and that "clonal" progressions arise by "stepwise selection of more aggressive sublines". The literature, however, contains many examples of "immediate" selections of progressions with numerous new chromosomes - notably experimentally initiated fusions between cancers and heterologous cells. Furthermore, the stepwise progression theory predicts intermediate sublines of cancers with multiple non-clonal additions of new chromosomes. However, the literature does not describe such intermediates. In view of these inconsistencies with stepwise progression we test here a saltational theory, in which the inherent variability of cancer-specific aneuploidy generates "immediate" progressions with individual clonal karyotypes, transcriptomes and phenotypes in single steps. Using cell fusion as an established controllable model of "immediate" progression, we generated seven immortal murine hybridomas by fusing immortal murine myeloma cells and normal antibody-producing B-cells with polyethylene glycol within a few minutes. These immortal hybridomas contained individual sets of 71 to 105 clonal chromosomes, compared to the 52 chromosomes of the parental myeloma. Thus the myeloma had gained 19 to 53 new clonal chromosomes in seven individual hybridomas in a single step. Furthermore, no stable intermediates were found, as would be predicted by a saltational process. We conclude that random fusions between myelomas and normal B-cells generate clonal hybridomas with multiple, individual chromosomes in single steps. Similar single-step mechanisms may also generate the "late" clonal progressions of cancers with gains of numerous new chromosomes and thus explain the absence of intermediates. Latency would reflect the low probability of rare stochastic progressions. In conclusion, the karyotypic clonality of hybridomas and spontaneous progressions suggests karyotypic alterations as proximate causes of neoplastic progressions. Since cancer-specific aneuploidy catalyzes karyotypic variation, the degree of aneuploidy predicts the clinical risk of neoplastic progression onfirming classical predictions based on DNA content

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1186/s13039-017-0350-4

Cancer letters, 412, 99--107

Quantified postsurgical small cell size CTCs and EpCAM+ circulating tumor stem cells with cytogenetic abnormalities in hepatocellular carcinoma patients determine cancer relapse.

Wang, Liang, Li, Yilin, Xu, Jing, Zhang, Aiqun, Wang, Xuedong, Tang, Rui, Zhang, Xinjing, Yin, Hongfang, Liu, Manting, Wang, Daisy Dandan, Lin, Peter Ping, Shen, Lin, Dong, Jiahong

<p>Detection of hepatocellular carcinoma circulating tumor cells performed with conventional strategies, is significantly limited due to inherently heterogeneous and dynamic expression of EpCAM, as well as degradation of cytokeratins during epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, which inevitably lead to non-negligible false negative detection of such "uncapturable and invisible" CTCs. A novel SE-iFISH strategy, improved for detection of HCC CTCs in this study, was applied to comprehensively detect, in situ phenotypically and karyotypically characterize hepatocellular and cholangiocarcinoma CTCs (CD45 /CD31 ) in patients subjected to surgical resection. Clinical significance of diverse subtypes of CTC was systematically investigated. Existence of small cell size CTCs (≤5 μm of WBCs) with cytogenetic abnormality of aneuploid chromosome 8, which constituted majority of the detected CTCs in HCC patients, was demonstrated for the first time. The stemness marker EpCAM aneuploid circulating tumor stem cells (CTSCs), and EpCAM small CTCs with trisomy 8, promote tumor growth. Postsurgical quantity of small triploid CTCs (≥5 cells/6 ml blood), multiploid (≥pentasomy 8) CTSCs or CTM (either one ≥ 1) significantly correlated to HCC patients' poor prognosis, indicating that detection of those specific subtypes of CTCs and CTSCs in post-operative patients help predict neoplasm recurrence.</p>

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1016/j.canlet.2017.10.004

Journal of phycology

Quantitative comparison of taxa and taxon concepts in the diatom genus Fragilariopsis: a case study on using slide scanning, multi-expert image annotation and image analysis in taxonomy.

Beszteri, Bánk, Allen, Claire, Almandoz, Gastón O, Armand, Leanne, Barcena, María Ángeles, Cantzler, Hannelore, Crosta, Xavier, Esper, Oliver, Jordan, Richard W, Kauer, Gerhard, Klaas, Christine, Kloster, Michael, Leventer, Amy, Pike, Jennifer, Rigual Hernández, Andrés S

Semi-automated methods for microscopic image acquisition, image analysis and taxonomic identification have repeatedly received attention in diatom analysis. Less well studied is the question whether and how such methods might prove useful for clarifying the delimitation of species that are difficult to separate for human taxonomists. To try to answer this question, three very similar Fragilariopsis species endemic to the Southern Ocean were targeted in this study: F. obliquecostata, F. ritscheri, and F. sublinearis. A set of 501 extended focus depth specimen images were obtained using a standardized, semi-automated microscopic procedure. Twelve diatomists independently identified these specimen images in order to reconcile taxonomic opinions and agree upon a taxonomic gold standard. Using image analyses, we then extracted morphometric features representing taxonomic characters of the target taxa. The discriminating ability of individual morphometric features was tested visually and statistically, and multivariate classification experiments were performed to test the agreement of the quantitatively-defined taxa assignments with expert consensus opinion. Beyond an updated differential diagnosis of the studied taxa, our study also shows that automated imaging and image analysis procedures for diatoms are coming close to reaching a broad applicability for routine use. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1111/jpy.12767

Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD, 61, 899–905

A Novel Antibody Targeting Tau Phosphorylated at Serine 235 Detects Neurofibrillary Tangles.

Brici, David, Götz, Jürgen, Nisbet, Rebecca M

<p>Alzheimer's disease is characterized by two main pathological hallmarks in the human brain: the extracellular deposition of amyloid-β as plaques and the intracellular accumulation of the hyperphosphorylated protein tau as neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). Phosphorylated tau (p-tau) specific-antibodies and silver staining have been used to reveal three morphological stages of NFT formation: pre-NFTs, intraneuronal NFTs (iNFTs), and extraneuronal NFTs (eNFTs). Here we characterize a novel monoclonal antibody, RN235, which is specific for tau phosphorylated at serine 235, and detects iNFTs and eNFTs in brain tissue, suggesting that phosphorylation at this site is indicative of late stage changes in tau.</p>

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.3233/JAD-170610

Pathology, research and practice, 214, 318--324

Osteosarcoma arising in fibrous dysplasia, confirmed by mutational analysis of GNAS gene.

Sugiura, Yoshiya, Kanda, Hiroaki, Motoi, Noriko, Nomura, Kimie, Inamura, Kentaro, Okada, Erina, Matsumoto, Haruna, Shimoji, Takashi, Matsumoto, Seiichi, Nakayama, Jun, Takazawa, Yutaka, Ishikawa, Yuichi, Machinami, Rikuo

Malignancy arising in fibrous dysplasia (FD) is rare. Approximately 100 cases have been reported so far, and osteosarcoma is the most common malignancy. We report a case of osteosarcoma in a 33-year-old Japanese man with monostotic FD of the right proximal femur from the age of 16 years. Histologically, relatively well-differentiated osteosarcoma was found in the FD lesion. Immunohistochemically, the FD was negative for p53 or MDM2, and the MIB-1 index was less than 1%, whereas the osteosarcoma was positive for both p53 and MDM2, and the MIB-1 index was up to 15%. The FD and osteosarcoma were negative for CDK4. Fluorescent in situ hybridization assay showed no amplification of the MDM2 gene, indicating that the osteosarcoma was a conventional osteosarcoma, not an intraosseous well-differentiated type. The original cell of malignancy in FD is unclear. Malignancy can be potentially derived from dysplastic cells in the area of the FD or cells in the adjacent normal tissues. GNAS gene mutation has recently been reported for fibrous dysplasia and the mutation is highly specific to fibrous dysplasia among fibro-osseous lesions including osteosarcoma. In this case, point mutations of GNAS were found in the FD and osteosarcoma but not in the adjacent normal tissues, suggesting that osteosarcoma was derived from the spindle cells of FD. This is the first report to clearly show that osteosarcoma is derived from the spindle cells in fibrous dysplasia (FD).

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1016/j.prp.2017.10.018

Postgraduate medical journal, 94, 398--403

Adenotonsillar microbiome: an update.

Johnston, James Jordan, Douglas, Richard

Pathogenic bacteria associated with the adenoids and tonsils cause much morbidity in the paediatric population. Hyperplasia of the adenoids is associated with otitis media with effusion and hyperplasia of the palatine tonsils is associated with both recurrent tonsillitis and obstructive sleep apnoea. Most current knowledge of the microbiology of the upper airways has been derived from culture-based studies, which usually reflect only a small fraction of the bacteria present on the mucosal surface. Culture-independent molecular surveys based on 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing are now being employed to determine the microbiota on the surface and within the tissue of adenoids and palatine tonsils. This review describes the new techniques applied in determining the microbiome and summarises the results of studies employing these techniques.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1136/postgradmedj-2018-135602