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Journal of applied toxicology : JAT

Genotoxic risk of ethyl-paraben could be related to telomere shortening.

Finot, F, Kaddour, A, Morat, L, Mouche, I, Zaguia, N, Cuceu, C, Souverville, D, Négrault, S, Cariou, O, Essahli, A, Prigent, N, Saul, J, Paillard, F, Heidingsfelder, L, Lafouge, P, Al Jawhari, M, Hempel, W M, El May, M, Colicchio, B, Dieterlen, A, Jeandidier, E, Sabatier, L, Clements, J, M'Kacher, R

The ability of parabens to promote the appearance of multiple cancer hallmarks in breast epithelium cells provides grounds for regulatory review of the implication of the presence of parabens in human breast tissue. It is well documented that telomere dysfunction plays a significant role in the initiation of genomic instability during carcinogenesis in human breast cancer. In the present study, we evaluated the genotoxic effect of ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (ethyl-paraben), with and without metabolic activation (S9), in studies following OECD guidelines. We observed a significant increase in genotoxic damage using the Mouse Lymphoma Assay and in vitro micronucleus (MN) tests in the L5178Y cell line in the presence of S9 only after a short exposure. A high frequency of MN was observed in the TK6 cells after a short exposure (3 h) in the presence of S9 and a long exposure (26 h) without S9. We found significant increases in the MN frequency and induced chromosomal aberrations in the lymphocytes of only one donor after ethyl-paraben exposure in the presence of S9 after a short exposure. Cytogenetic characterization of the paraben-treated cells demonstrated telomere shortening associated with telomere loss and telomere deletions in L5178Y and TK6 cells and lymphocytes of the paraben sensitive-donor. In a control cohort of 68 human lymphocytes, telomere length and telomere aberrations were age-dependent and showed high inter-individual variation. This study is the first to link telomere shortening and the genotoxic effect of ethyl paraben in the presence of S9 and raises the possibility that telomere shortening may be a proxy for underlying inter-individual sensitivity to ethyl-paraben. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1002/jat.3425

Sci Rep, 6, 25658

Trafficking of Endogenous Immunoglobulins by Endothelial Cells at the Blood-Brain Barrier.

Villasenor, Roberto, Ozmen, Laurence, Messaddeq, Nadia, Grüninger, Fiona, Loetscher, Hansruedi, Keller, Annika, Betsholtz, Christer, Freskg\aard, Per-Ola, Collin, Ludovic

The Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) restricts access of large molecules to the brain. The low endocytic activity of brain endothelial cells (BECs) is believed to limit delivery of immunoglobulins (IgG) to the brain parenchyma. Here, we report that endogenous mouse IgG are localized within intracellular vesicles at steady state in BECs in vivo. Using high-resolution quantitative microscopy, we found a fraction of endocytosed IgG in lysosomes. We observed that loss of pericytes (key components of the BBB) in pdgf-b(ret/ret) mice affects the intracellular distribution of endogenous mouse IgG in BECs. In these mice, endogenous IgG was not detected within lysosomes but instead accumulate at the basement membrane and brain parenchyma. Such IgG accumulation could be due to reduced lysosomal clearance and increased sorting to the abluminal membrane of BECs. Our results suggest that, in addition to low uptake from circulation, IgG lysosomal degradation may be a downstream mechanism by which BECs further restrict IgG access to the brain.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1038/srep25658

Mol Cytogenet, 9, 38

Rare case of Killian-Pallister syndrome associated with idiopathic short stature detected with fluorescent in situ hybridization on buccal smear.

Sukarova-Angelovska, Elena, Kocova, Mirjana, Ilieva, Gordana, Angelkova, Natalija, Kochova, Elena

Killian-Pallister syndrome (KPS) is a rare form of chromosomal mosaicism and is defined by the existence of an extra chromosome 12 in some cell lines in one individual. The degree of mosaicism varies among tissues and dictates the clinical presentation of the syndrome. The clinical features of Killian-Pallister syndrome include mental retardation, typical facial dysmorphism and pigmentation defects.We present a rare case of Killian-Pallister syndrome with severe form of the disease associated with isolated growth hormone deficiency and low-rate mosaicism on buccal smear. The absence of a marker chromosome 12p in lymphocyte cultures and the low degree of mosaicism lead to frequent misdiagnosis of this condition.The selection of tissue sampling is crucial in establishing the diagnosis of Killian-Pallister syndrome. Fluorescent in situ hybridisation on buccal smear remains the golden standard as a screening method if a suspicion of the syndrome exists.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1186/s13039-016-0239-7

Public Health England. Part of: Radiation: PHE-CRCE report series.

Doses in Radiation Accidents Investigated by Chromosomal Aberration Analysis XXV. Review of cases investigated, 2006–2015.

M Sun, J E Moquet, S Barnard, D C Lloyd, K Rothkamm, E A Ainsbury

During the period 73 people suspected of being overexposed to ionising radiation were referred to Public Health England (and its predecessor the Health Protection Agency) for biological dosimetry. Although the vast majority of cases were suspected occupational overexposures, the most serious case concerned a 2-year-old boy who sustained radiation burns during CT scans performed outside the European Union, which were incorrectly repeated numerous times. The cases included in this summary bring the total number of individuals examined since the laboratory was established in 1968 to 1092. A number of new biological dosimetry techniques have been developed within the last 10 years. These are briefly summarised in this report and represent a large improvement in the laboratory’s ability both to perform accurate routine biological dose estimations and to provide rapid response triage dose estimates following a mass casualty event.

Gastroenterol Res Pract, 2016, 6089658

The Role of Chromosomal Instability and Epigenetics in Colorectal Cancers Lacking beta-Catenin/TCF Regulated Transcription.

Abdel-Rahman, Wael M., Lotsari-Salomaa, Johanna E., Kaur, Sippy, Niskakoski, Anni, Knuutila, Sakari, Järvinen, Heikki, Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka, Peltomäki, Päivi

All colorectal cancer cell lines except RKO displayed active β-catenin/TCF regulated transcription. This feature of RKO was noted in familial colon cancers; hence our aim was to dissect its carcinogenic mechanism. MFISH and CGH revealed distinct instability of chromosome structure in RKO. Gene expression microarray of RKO versus 7 colon cancer lines (with active Wnt signaling) and 3 normal specimens revealed 611 differentially expressed genes. The majority of the tested gene loci were susceptible to LOH in primary tumors with various β-catenin localizations as a surrogate marker for β-catenin activation. The immunohistochemistry of selected genes (IFI16, RGS4, MCTP1, DGKI, OBCAM/OPCML, and GLIPR1) confirmed that they were differentially expressed in clinical specimens. Since epigenetic mechanisms can contribute to expression changes, selected target genes were evaluated for promoter methylation in patient specimens from sporadic and hereditary colorectal cancers. CMTM3, DGKI, and OPCML were frequently hypermethylated in both groups, whereas KLK10, EPCAM, and DLC1 displayed subgroup specificity. The overall fraction of hypermethylated genes was higher in tumors with membranous β-catenin. We identified novel genes in colorectal carcinogenesis that might be useful in personalized tumor profiling. Tumors with inactive Wnt signaling are a heterogeneous group displaying interaction of chromosomal instability, Wnt signaling, and epigenetics.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1155/2016/6089658

Sci Rep, 6, 32510

Replication Timing of Human Telomeres is Conserved during Immortalization and Influenced by Respective Subtelomeres.

Piqueret-Stephan, Laure, Ricoul, Michelle, Hempel, William M., Sabatier, Laure

Telomeres are specific structures that protect chromosome ends and act as a biological clock, preventing normal cells from replicating indefinitely. Mammalian telomeres are replicated throughout S-phase in a predetermined order. However, the mechanism of this regulation is still unknown. We wished to investigate this phenomenon under physiological conditions in a changing environment, such as the immortalization process to better understand the mechanism for its control. We thus examined the timing of human telomere replication in normal and SV40 immortalized cells, which are cytogenetically very similar to cancer cells. We found that the timing of telomere replication was globally conserved under different conditions during the immortalization process. The timing of telomere replication was conserved despite changes in telomere length due to endogenous telomerase reactivation, in duplicated homologous chromosomes, and in rearranged chromosomes. Importantly, translocated telomeres, possessing their initial subtelomere, retained the replication timing of their homolog, independently of the proportion of the translocated arm, even when the remaining flanking DNA is restricted to its subtelomere, the closest chromosome-specific sequences (inferior to 500 kb). Our observations support the notion that subtelomere regions strongly influence the replication timing of the associated telomere.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1038/srep32510

Molecular cytogenetics, 9, 90

Inherent variability of cancer-specific aneuploidy generates metastases.

Bloomfield, Mathew, Duesberg, Peter

The genetic basis of metastasis is still unclear because metastases carry individual karyotypes and phenotypes, rather than consistent mutations, and are rare compared to conventional mutation. There is however correlative evidence that metastasis depends on cancer-specific aneuploidy, and that metastases are karyotypically related to parental cancers. Accordingly we propose that metastasis is a speciation event. This theory holds that cancer-specific aneuploidy varies the clonal karyotypes of cancers automatically by unbalancing thousands of genes, and that rare variants form new autonomous subspecies with metastatic or other non-parental phenotypes like drug-resistance - similar to conventional subspeciation. To test this theory, we analyzed the karyotypic and morphological relationships between seven cancers and corresponding metastases. We found (1) that the cellular phenotypes of metastases were closely related to those of parental cancers, (2) that metastases shared 29 to 96% of their clonal karyotypic elements or aneusomies with the clonal karyotypes of parental cancers and (3) that, unexpectedly, the karyotypic complexity of metastases was very similar to that of the parental cancer. This suggests that metastases derive cancer-specific autonomy by conserving the overall complexity of the parental karyotype. We deduced from these results that cancers cause metastases by karyotypic variations and selection for rare metastatic subspecies. Further we asked whether metastases with multiple metastasis-specific aneusomies are assembled in one or multiple, sequential steps. Since (1) no stable karyotypic intermediates of metastases were observed in cancers here and previously by others, and (2) the karyotypic complexities of cancers are conserved in metastases, we concluded that metastases are generated from cancers in one step - like subspecies in conventional speciation. We conclude that the risk of cancers to metastasize is proportional to the degree of cancer-specific aneuploidy, because aneuploidy catalyzes the generation of subspecies, including metastases, at aneuploidy-dependent rates. Since speciation by random chromosomal rearrangements and selection is unpredictable, the theory that metastases are karyotypic subspecies of cancers also explains Foulds' rules, which hold that the origins of metastases are "abrupt" and that their phenotypes are "unpredictable."

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1186/s13039-016-0297-x

J Med Case Rep, 10, 203

Acute promyelocytic leukemia with the translocation t(15;17)(q22;q21) associated with t(1;2)(q42~43;q11.2~12): a case report.

Wafa, Abdulsamad, Moassass, Faten, Liehr, Thomas, Al-Ablog, Ayman, Al-Achkar, Walid

Acute promyelocytic leukemia is characterized by a typical reciprocal translocation t(15;17)(q22;q21). Additional chromosomal abnormalities are reported in only 23-43 \% of cases of acute promyelocytic leukemia.Here we report the case of a 46-year-old Syrian Alawis woman with acute promyelocytic leukemia with the typical t(15;17) translocation, but with a second clone presenting a t(1;2)(q42~43;q11.2~12) translocation as an additional abnormality. To the best of our knowledge, an association between these chromosomal abnormalities has not previously been described in the literature. Our patient started treatment with all-trans retinoic acid 10 days after diagnosis but died the same day of treatment initiation due to hemolysis, intracranial hemorrhage, thrombocytopenia, and disseminated intravascular coagulation.The here reported combination of aberrations in a case of acute promyelocytic leukemia seems to indicate an adverse prognosis, and possibly shows that all-trans retinoic acid treatment may be contraindicated in such cases.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1186/s13256-016-0982-8

Comp Cytogenet, 10(1), 45–59

Sex chromosome diversity in Armenian toad grasshoppers (Orthoptera, Acridoidea, Pamphagidae).

Bugrov, Alexander G., Jetybayev, Ilyas E., Karagyan, Gayane H., Rubtsov, Nicolay B.

Although previous cytogenetic analysis of Pamphagidae grasshoppers pointed to considerable karyotype uniformity among most of the species in the family, our study of species from Armenia has discovered other, previously unknown karyotypes, differing from the standard for Pamphagidae mainly in having unusual sets of sex chromosomes. Asiotmethis turritus (Fischer von Waldheim, 1833), Paranocaracris rubripes (Fischer von Waldheim, 1846), and Nocaracris cyanipes (Fischer von Waldheim, 1846) were found to have the karyotype 2n♂=16+neo-XY and 2n♀=16+neo-XX, the neo-X chromosome being the result of centromeric fusion of an ancient acrocentric X chromosome and a large acrocentric autosome. The karyotype of Paranothrotes opacus (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1882) was found to be 2n♂=14+X1X2Y and 2n♀=14+X1X1X2X2., the result of an additional chromosome rearrangement involving translocation of the neo-Y and another large autosome. Furthermore, evolution of the sex chromosomes in these species has involved different variants of heterochromatinization and miniaturization of the neo-Y. The karyotype of Eremopeza festiva (Saussure, 1884), in turn, appeared to have the standard sex determination system described earlier for Pamphagidae grasshoppers, 2n♂=18+X0 and 2n♀=18+XX, but all the chromosomes of this species were found to have small second C-positive arms. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 18S rDNA and telomeric (TTAGG)n DNA repeats to yield new data on the structural organization of chromosomes in the species studied, we found that for most of them, clusters of repeats homologous to 18S rDNA localize on two, three or four pairs of autosomes and on the X. In Eremopeza festiva, however, FISH with labelled 18S rDNA painted C-positive regions of all autosomes and the X chromosome; clusters of telomeric repeats localized primarily on the ends of the chromosome arms. Overall, we conclude that the different stages of neo-Y degradation revealed in the Pamphagidae species studied make the family a very promising and useful model for studying sex chromosome evolution.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.3897/CompCytogen.v10i1.6407

J Neurosci Methods, 247, 41–49
May, 2015

Assessing fibrinogen extravasation into Alzheimer's disease brain using high-content screening of brain tissue microarrays.

Narayan, Pritika J., Kim, Sue-Ling, Lill, Claire, Feng, Sheryl, Faull, Richard L M., Curtis, Maurice A., Dragunow, Michael

Tissue microarrays are commonly used to evaluate disease pathology however methods to automate and quantify pathological changes are limited.This article demonstrates the utility of the VSlide scanner (MetaSystems) for automated image acquisition from immunolabelled tissue microarray slides, and subsequent automated image analysis with MetaXpress (Molecular Devices) software to obtain objective, efficient and reproducible data from immunolabelled tissue microarray sections.Significant increases in fibrinogen immunolabelling were observed in 29 Alzheimer's disease cases compared to 28 control cases analysed from a single tissue microarray slide. Western blot analysis also demonstrated significant increases in fibrinogen immunolabelling in 6 Alzheimer's cases compared to 6 control cases. The observed changes were also validated with gold standard blinded manual H-scoring.VSlide Metafer software offers a 'tissue microarray acquisition' plugin for easy mapping of tissue cores with their original position on the tissue microarray map. High resolution VSlide images are compatible with MetaXpress image analysis software. This article details the coupling of these two technologies to accurately and reproducibly analyse immunolabelled tissue microarrays within minutes, compared to the gold standard method of manual counting using H-scores which is significantly slower and prone to inter-observer variation.Here, we couple brain tissue microarray technology with high-content screening and automated image analysis as a powerful way to address bottle necks in data generation and improve throughput, as well as sensitivity to study biological/pathological changes in brain disease.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2015.03.017

April, 2015

Sesamol attenuates genotoxicity in bone marrow cells of whole-body γ-irradiated mice.

Arun Kumar, Tamizh G. Selvan, Akanchha M. Tripathi, Sandeep Choudhary, Shahanshah Khan, Jawahar S. Adhikari, Nabo K. Chaudhury

Ionising radiation causes free radical-mediated damage in cellular DNA. This damage is manifested as chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei (MN) in proliferating cells. Sesamol, present in sesame seeds, has the potential to scavenge free radicals; therefore, it can reduce radiation-induced cytogenetic damage in cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the radioprotective potential of sesamol in bone marrow cells of mice and related haematopoietic system against radiation-induced genotoxicity. A comparative study with melatonin was designed for assessing the radioprotective potential of sesamol. C57BL/6 mice were administered intraperitoneally with either sesamol or melatonin (10 and 20mg/kg body weight) 30min prior to 2-Gy whole-body irradiation (WBI) and sacrificed after 24h. Total chromosomal aberrations (TCA), MN and cell cycle analyses were performed using bone marrow cells. The comet assay was performed on bone marrow cells, splenocytes and lymphocytes. Blood was drawn to study haematological parameters. Prophylactic doses of sesamol (10 and 20mg/kg) in irradiated mice reduced TCA and micronucleated polychromatic erythrocyte frequency in bone marrow cells by 57\% and 50\%, respectively, in comparison with radiation-only groups. Sesamol-reduced radiation-induced apoptosis and facilitated cell proliferation. In the comet assay, sesamol (20mg/kg) treatment reduced radiation-induced comets (\% DNA in tail) compared with radiation only (P

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 112(15), 4713–4718
April, 2015

Multiple mechanisms limit meiotic crossovers: TOP3alpha and two BLM homologs antagonize crossovers in parallel to FANCM.

Séguéla-Arnaud, Mathilde, Crismani, Wayne, Larchevêque, Cécile, Mazel, Julien, Froger, Nicole, Choinard, Sandrine, Lemhemdi, Afef, Macaisne, Nicolas, Van Leene, Jelle, Gevaert, Kris, De Jaeger, Geert, Chelysheva, Liudmilla, Mercier, Raphael

Meiotic crossovers (COs) have two important roles, shuffling genetic information and ensuring proper chromosome segregation. Despite their importance and a large excess of precursors (i.e., DNA double-strand breaks, DSBs), the number of COs is tightly regulated, typically one to three per chromosome pair. The mechanisms ensuring that most DSBs are repaired as non-COs and the evolutionary forces imposing this constraint are poorly understood. Here we identified Topoisomerase3α (TOP3α) and the RECQ4 helicases–the Arabidopsis slow growth suppressor 1 (Sgs1)/Bloom syndrome protein (BLM) homologs–as major barriers to meiotic CO formation. First, the characterization of a specific TOP3α mutant allele revealed that, in addition to its role in DNA repair, this topoisomerase antagonizes CO formation. Further, we found that RECQ4A and RECQ4B constitute the strongest meiotic anti-CO activity identified to date, their concomitant depletion leading to a sixfold increase in CO frequency. In both top3α and recq4ab mutants, DSB number is unaffected, and extra COs arise from a normally minor pathway. Finally, both TOP3α and RECQ4A/B act independently of the previously identified anti-CO Fanconi anemia of complementation group M (FANCM) helicase. This finding shows that several parallel pathways actively limit CO formation and suggests that the RECQA/B and FANCM helicases prevent COs by processing different substrates. Despite a ninefold increase in CO frequency, chromosome segregation was unaffected. This finding supports the idea that CO number is restricted not because of mechanical constraints but likely because of the long-term costs of recombination. Furthermore, this work demonstrates how manipulating a few genes holds great promise for increasing recombination frequency in plant-breeding programs.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1073/pnas.1423107112

Stroke, 46(3), 835--842
March, 2015

Imaging of a clinically relevant stroke model: glucose hypermetabolismrevisited.

Fabian Arnberg, Jonas Grafstroem, Johan Lundberg, Sahar Nikkhou-Aski, Philip Little, Peter Damberg, Nicholas Mitsios, Jan Mulder, Li Lu, Michael Soederman, Sharon Stone-Elander, Staffan Holmin

Ischemic stroke has been shown to cause hypermetabolism of glucose in the ischemic penumbra. Experimental and clinical data indicate that infarct-related systemic hyperglycemia is a potential therapeutic target in acute stroke. However, clinical studies aiming for glucose control in acute stroke have neither improved functional outcome nor reduced mortality. Thus, further studies on glucose metabolism in the ischemic brain are warranted.We used a rat model of stroke that preserves collateral flow. The animals were analyzed by [2-(18)F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography or magnetic resonance imaging during 90-minute occlusion of the middle cerebral artery and during 60 minutes after reperfusion. Results were correlated to magnetic resonance imaging of cerebral blood flow, diffusion of water, lactate formation, and histological data on cell death and blood-brain barrier breakdown.We detected an increased [2-(18)F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose uptake within ischemic regions succumbing to infarction and in the peri-infarct region. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed impairment of blood flow to ischemic levels in the infarct and a reduction of cerebral blood flow in the peri-infarct region. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed lactate in the ischemic region and absence of lactate in the peri-infarct region. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed apoptosis and blood-brain barrier breakdown within the infarct.The increased uptake of [2-(18)F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose in cerebral ischemia most likely reflects hypermetabolism of glucose meeting increased energy needs of ischemic and hypoperfused brain tissue, and it occurs under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions measured by local lactate production. Infarct-related systemic hyperglycemia could serve to facilitate glucose supply to the ischemic brain. Glycemic control by insulin treatment could negatively influence this mechanism.

Acta Neuropathol
February, 2015

Critical role of somatostatin receptor 2 in the vulnerability ofthe central noradrenergic system: new aspects on Alzheimer's disease.

Csaba Adori, Laura Glueck, Swapnali Barde, Takashi Yoshitake, Gabor G. Kovacs, Jan Mulder, Zsofia Magloczky, Laszlo Havas, Kata Boelcskei, Nicholas Mitsios, Mathias Uhlen, Janos Szolcsanyi, Jan Kehr, Annica Roennbaeck, Thue Schwartz, Jens F. Rehfeld, Tibor Harkany, Miklos Palkovits, Stefan Schulz, Tomas Hoekfelt

Alzheimer's disease and other age-related neurodegenerative disorders are associated with deterioration of the noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC), a probable trigger for mood and memory dysfunction. LC noradrenergic neurons exhibit particularly high levels of somatostatin binding sites. This is noteworthy since cortical and hypothalamic somatostatin content is reduced in neurodegenerative pathologies. Yet a possible role of a somatostatin signal deficit in the maintenance of noradrenergic projections remains unknown. Here, we deployed tissue microarrays, immunohistochemistry, quantitative morphometry and mRNA profiling in a cohort of Alzheimer's and age-matched control brains in combination with genetic models of somatostatin receptor deficiency to establish causality between defunct somatostatin signalling and noradrenergic neurodegeneration. In Alzheimer's disease, we found significantly reduced somatostatin protein expression in the temporal cortex, with aberrant clustering and bulging of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive afferents. As such, somatostatin receptor 2 (SSTR2) mRNA was highly expressed in the human LC, with its levels significantly decreasing from Braak stages III/IV and onwards, i.e., a process preceding advanced Alzheimer's pathology. The loss of SSTR2 transcripts in the LC neurons appeared selective, since tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine {\^a}-hydroxylase, galanin or galanin receptor 3 mRNAs remained unchanged. We modeled these pathogenic changes in Sstr2 (-/-) mice and, unlike in Sstr1 (-/-) or Sstr4 (-/-) genotypes, they showed selective, global and progressive degeneration of their central noradrenergic projections. However, neuronal perikarya in the LC were found intact until late adulthood (

Brain Struct Funct
January, 2015

Acute neuroinflammation in a clinically relevant focal cortical ischemicstroke model in rat: longitudinal positron emission tomography andimmunofluorescent tracking.

Miklos Toth, Philip Little, Fabian Arnberg, Jenny Haeggkvist, Jan Mulder, Christer Halldin, Balazs Gulyas, Staffan Holmin

Adequate estimation of neuroinflammatory processes following ischemic stroke is essential for better understanding of disease mechanisms, and for the development of treatment strategies. With the TSPO (18 kDa translocator protein) positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand [(11)C]PBR28, we monitored longitudinally the inflammatory response post-transient cerebral ischemia in rats, using a recently developed rat stroke model that produces isolated focal cortical infarcts with clinical relevance in size and pathophysiology. Six Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 90 min transient endovascular occlusion of the M2 segment of the middle cerebral artery (M2CAO). Animals were imaged with a nanoScan(®) PET/MRI system at 1, 4, 7 and 14 days after M2CAO with a bolus injection of [(11)C]PBR28. In the infarct region, we found a significantly increased uptake of [(11)C]PBR28 on day 4, 7 and 14 compared to day 1 as well as compared to the contralateral cortex. No significant increase was detected in the contralateral cortex during the 14 days of imaging. The activation in the infarct region gradually decreased between day 4 and day 14. In an additional group of animals (n = 26), immunofluorescence studies were performed with antibodies for activated microglia/monocytes (Cd11b), phagocytes (Cd68), astrocytes (glial fibrillary acidic protein) and TSPO. The TSPO immunofluorescence signal indicated reactive microgliosis post injury, corresponding to PET findings. The present clinically relevant animal model and TSPO PET ligand appear to be well suited for studies on neuroinflammation after ischemic stroke.

Trends in Cancer Research

Fluorescence in situ hybridisation assays designed for del(7q) detection uncover more complex rearrangements in myeloid leukaemia cell lines

Yasser Mostafa Kamel, Abdulbasit Naiel, Areej Alshehri, Michael Vetter, Salvatore Saccone, Rhona Anderson, Sabrina Tosi

Fluorescence in situ hybridisation assays designed for del(7q) detection uncover more complex rearrangements in myeloid leukaemia cell lines ABSTRACT Chromosome 7 abnormalities are associated with poor prognosis in myeloid leukaemia. The pathogenetic mechanisms chromosome 7 rearrangements and lead to malignancy are still poorly understood. The use of leukaemia- derived cell lines might be a useful tool to shed some light on these mechanisms. The cytogenetic characterisation of these cell lines is therefore important for the understanding of the genetic alterations leading to the disease. We carried out fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) on three different myeloid leukaemia-derived cell lines (GDM-1, GF-D8 and K562). These were selected on the basis of harbouring rearrangements of chromosome 7. The probes used in these experiments were whole and partial chromosome paints, Multiplex-fluorescence in situ hybridisation (M-FISH) probes as well as locus specific probes for the 7q22, 7q31 and 7q36 regions. Our study confirmed the chromosome 7 abnormalities previously reported in the cell lines GDM-1 and GF-D8. We refined one of the rearrangements of chromosome 7 in the K562 cell line and reported some discrepancies with the data published in earlier reports. With this study, we confirm the importance of using a series of FISH that arise from probes to characterise chromosomal abnormalities in detail, as some rearrangements might go under-detected or mis-interpreted. Moreover, we highlight the importance of monitoring cell lines broadly used in research, as these can lose or acquire characteristics as they evolve in time in different laboratories.

Dental materials : official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials, 31, 1335--1344

Dental composite components induce DNA-damage and altered nuclear morphology in gingiva fibroblasts.

Styllou, Marianthi, Reichl, Franz-Xaver, Styllou, Panorea, Urcan, Ebru, Rothmund, Lena, Hickel, Reinhard, Högg, Christof, Scherthan, Harry

Released dental composite components can damage human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) and their DNA. The cytotoxicity, chromatin condensation and the induction of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) by different compounds of dental composites was investigated using an improved γ-H2AX focus assay. HGFs were incubated with the monomers: bisphenol-A-ethoxylate-dimethacrylate (Bis-DMA), bisphenol-A-glycerolate-dimethacrylate (BisGMA), ethyltriethylen glycol methacrylate (ETEGMA), glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), 1,6-hexandiol-dimethycrylate (HDDMA), trimethylolpropane ethoxylate triacrylate (TMPTA), and acrylamide (ACR). DSBs were determined by enumerating γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci colocalized at DSBs. A concentration-dependent induction of DSBs was found in the order: GMA>BisGMA>ACR>Bis-DMA>HDDMA>TMPTA>ETEGMA. HGFs exposure to GMA (0.3mM) and to BisGMA (0.09mM) induced the highest rate of DSB foci, i.e. 12-fold and 8-fold, respectively, relative to control (0.33 DSB foci/cell). At the highest concentrations (EC50) prominent changes in the chromatin morphology of HGF cell nuclei, i.e. compaction of nuclear chromatin and reduction of the area covered by the ovoid fibroblast nuclei, were observed. Nuclear condensation was significantly induced by GMA (1.7-fold at 0.3mM) and BisGMA (1.6-fold at 0.09mM), which correlated with the highest numbers of induced DSB foci (GMA, BisGMA, 3.9 and 2.6 foci/cell, respectively). The improved γ-H2AX/53BP1 focus assay revealed a concentration-dependent increase in DSBs for all tested substances. Furthermore, concentration-dependent changes in HGF cell nucleus morphology was noted, demonstrating genotoxic effects of the substances tested.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1016/

Cytogenet Genome Res, 147(2-3), 144–153

Comparative Cytogenetics of the Congo African Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus).

Seibold-Torres, Cassandra, Owens, Elaine, Chowdhary, Renuka, Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A., Tizard, Ian, Raudsepp, Terje

The Congo African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus, PER) is an endemic species of Central Africa, valued for its intelligence and listed as vulnerable due to poaching and habitat destruction. Improved knowledge about the P. erithacus genome is needed to address key biological questions and conservation of this species. The P. erithacus genome was studied using conventional and molecular cytogenetic approaches including Zoo-FISH. P. erithacus has a 'typical' parrot karyotype with 2n = 62-64 and 8 pairs of macrochromosomes. A distinct feature was a sharp macro-microchromosome boundary. Telomeric sequences were present at all chromosome ends and interstitially in PER2q, the latter coinciding with a C-band. NORs mapped to 4 pairs of microchromosomes which is in contrast to a single NOR in ancestral type avian karyotypes. Zoo-FISH with chicken macrochromosomes GGA1-9 and Z revealed patterns of conserved synteny similar to many other avian groups, though neighboring synteny combinations of GGA6/7, 8/9, and 1/4 were distinctive only to parrots. Overall, P. erithacus shared more Zoo-FISH patterns with neotropical macaws than Australian species such as cockatiel and budgerigar. The observations suggest that Psittaciformes karyotypes have undergone more extensive evolutionary rearrangements compared to the majority of other avian genomes.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1159/000444136

Cancers, 281-295

A Novel Three-Colour Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization Approach for the Detection of t(7;12)(q36;p13) in Acute Myeloid Leukaemia Reveals New Cryptic Three Way Translocation t(7;12;16)

Abdulbasit Naiel, Michael Vetter, Olga Plekhanova, Elena Fleischman, Olga Sokova, Grigory Tsaur, Jochen Harbott, Sabrina Tosi

The t(7;12)(q36;p13) translocation is a recurrent chromosome abnormality that involves the ETV6 gene on chromosome 12 and has been identified in 20-30% of infant patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). The detection of t(7;12) rearrangements relies on the use of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) because this translocation is hardly visible by chromosome banding methods. Furthermore, a fusion transcript HLXB9-ETV6 is found in approximately 50% of t(7;12) cases, making the reverse transcription PCR approach not an ideal screening method. Considering the report of few cases of variant translocations harbouring a cryptic t(7;12) rearrangement, we believe that the actual incidence of this abnormality is higher than reported to date. The clinical outcome of t(7;12) patients is believed to be poor, therefore an early and accurate diagnosis is important in the clinical management and treatment. In this study, we have designed and tested a novel three-colour FISH approach that enabled us not only to confirm the presence of the t(7;12) in a number of patients studied previously, but also to identify a cryptic t(7;12) as part of a complex rearrangement. This new approach has proven to be an efficient and reliable method to be used in the diagnostic setting.

Blood Cancer J, 5, e374

Four genetic lymphoma-specific events (MYC, BCL2, BCL6 and CCND1) identified in a high grade B lymphoma case.

Ittel, A., Hélias, C., Wissler, M. P., Toussaint, E., Miguet, L., Chenard, M. P., Monier, L., Gervais, C., Mauvieux, L.

In the WHO classification, double or triple-hit lymphoma depicts rare and aggressive lymphomas displaying BCL2 and/or MYC and/or BCL6 gene rearrangements that are categorized as B-cell lymphomas unclassified, with features intermediate between diffuse B-cell lymphoma and Burkitt lymphoma. Bacher et al.2 described an interesting series of 10 cases of such neoplasms. In addition, they reported the two first cases displaying four different lymphoma-specific events (quadruple hit) involving the genes MYC, BCL2, BCL6 and CCND1. We describe here a third case occurring in a 79-year-old male patient suffering from paraesthesias for 4 months who was referred for polyneuritis in a context of poor general condition. Clinical examination showed the presence of numerous axillary, supraclavicular, mediastinal and inguinal lymphadenopathies, neuro-meningeal invasion and skin infiltration. The biopsy of a left arm skin nodule revealed large proliferating cells (Ki-67 80%) stained by anti-CD20, BCL2 and BCL6 antibodies, CD10 and CD23 remaining negative, consistent with the diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), not otherwise specified. Blood cell counts showed 8.1 × 109/l leukocytes, 13.2 g/dl hemoglobin, 166 × 109/l platelets. LDH and β-2 microglobulin were elevated (989 U/I and 9.14 mg/l, respectively). Blood cell film examination showed the presence of 28% abnormal lymphocytes (medium sized, with intense basophilia, irregular nuclear contours, slightly clumped chromatin and frequent prominent nucleoli) suggestive of a high grade lymphoma. Flow cytometry revealed a lambda immunoglobulin light chain restriction. These cells expressed pan-B markers such as CD19, CD20, FMC7, CD22, with weak CD5 and CD43 positivity. CD10 and 23 were negative. Both the morphology and immunophenotype of the blood cells favored a pleomorphic mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) aggressive variant diagnosis. Cytogenetic study performed in the WBCs found a complex hyperdiploid karyotype (47 chromosomes, Figure 1) with a t(3;22) translocation involving the BCL6 and IGL genes, a structural abnormality of chromosome 8 resulting in juxtaposition of 5′ MYC and BCL2 in fluorescence in situ hybridization (with break of the MYC probe), a derivative chromosome 18 from a t(14;18) translocation with fusion of 5′IGH and BCL2, and a t(11;14) complex translocation involving IGH and CCND1 (Figure 2). Other numeral (trisomy 12) and structural abnormalities (involving the 1, 7, 14 and 21 chromosomes) were also detected (Figure 1). Overexpression of cyclin D1 was detected in the WBCs by real-time quantitative PCR, as well as in the skin lesion using immunochemistry. Anti-SOX11 antibody staining was found to be negative. Chemotherapy combining rituximab, ifosfamide, cytosine arabinoside and intrathecal methotrexate was initiated, but the patient died 4 months after the diagnosis. This third case of quadruple-hit lymphoma underlines the complexity of the classification of such aggressive malignancies. Initial rearrangement of the CCND1 gene characterizes MCL that may harbor in very rare cases additional rearrangements of MYC or BCL6, but histological transformation to typical large cell lymphoma is not retained in the WHO classification. In addition, cyclin D1 overexpression is considered to be a rare feature in DLBCL. Recently, Ok et al.3 proposed to reclassify DLBCL with expression of cyclin D1, CCND1 chromosomal rearrangement and CD5 positivity as an aggressive pleomorphic MCL variant. However, no observation of multiple lymphoma-specific gene rearrangements was described in that study. Juskevicius et al.4 suggest the existence of a ‘gray zone’ in which morphologic, clinical and genetic features are insufficient to segregate lymphomas with overexpression of cyclin D1/translocations involving CCND1 between blastoid MCL and cyclin D1-positive DLBCL. Regarding the immunophenotyping and molecular data, our case is possibly a genetically unstable aggressive pleomorphic MCL variant, which acquired three additional genetic hits.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1038/bcj.2015.99