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PLoS One, 7(6), e39521

Persistent DNA damage after high dose in vivo gamma exposure of minipigskin.

Emad A. Ahmed, Diane Agay, Gerrit Schrock, Michel Drouet, Viktor Meineke, Harry Scherthan

<p>Exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation (IR) can lead to localized radiation injury of the skin and exposed cells suffer dsDNA breaks that may elicit cell death or stochastic changes. Little is known about the DNA damage response after high-dose exposure of the skin. Here, we investigate the cellular and DNA damage response in acutely irradiated minipig skin.IR-induced DNA damage, repair and cellular survival were studied in 15 cm(2) of minipig skin exposed in vivo to ~50 Co-60 γ rays. Skin biopsies of control and 4 h up to 96 days post exposure were investigated for radiation-induced foci (RIF) formation using γ-H2AX, 53BP1, and active ATM-p immunofluorescence. High-dose IR induced massive γ-H2AX phosphorylation and high 53BP1 RIF numbers 4 h, 20 h after IR. As time progressed RIF numbers dropped to a low of 3-fold elevated at all subsequent time points. Replicating basal cells (Ki67+) were reduced 3 days post IR followed by increased proliferation and recovery of epidermal cellularity after 28 days.Acute high dose irradiation of minipig epidermis impaired stem cell replication and induced elevated apoptosis from 3 days onward. DNA repair cleared the high numbers of DBSs in skin cells, while RIFs that persisted in &lt;1% cells marked complex and potentially lethal DNA damage up to several weeks after exposure. An elevated frequency of keratinocytes with persistent RIFs may thus serve as indicator of previous acute radiation exposure, which may be useful in the follow up of nuclear or radiological accident scenarios.</p>

Blood, 118(26), 6760–6768
December, 2011

Impact of additional cytogenetic aberrations at diagnosis on prognosisof CML: long-term observation of 1151 patients from the randomizedCML Study IV.

Alice Fabarius, Armin Leitner, Andreas Hochhaus, Martin C Müller, Benjamin Hanfstein, Claudia Haferlach, Gudrun Göhring, Brigitte Schlegelberger, Martine Jotterand, Andreas Reiter, Susanne Jung-Munkwitz, Ulrike Proetel, Juliana Schwaab, Wolf-Karsten Hofmann, Jörg Schubert, Hermann Einsele, Anthony D Ho, Christiane Falge, Lothar Kanz, Andreas Neubauer, Michael Kneba, Frank Stegelmann, Michael Pfreundschuh, Cornelius F Waller, Karsten Spiekermann, Gabriela M Baerlocher, Michael Lauseker, Markus Pfirrmann, Joerg Hasford, Susanne Saussele, Rüdiger Hehlmann, für Klinische Krebsforschung (SAKK), Schweizerische Arbeitsg, the German CML Study Group,

<p>The prognostic relevance of additional cytogenetic findings at diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is unclear. The impact of additional cytogenetic findings at diagnosis on time to complete cytogenetic (CCR) and major molecular remission (MMR) and progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) was analyzed using data from 1151 Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph(+)) CML patients randomized to the German CML Study IV. At diagnosis, 1003 of 1151 patients (8%) had standard t(9;22)(q34;q11) only, 69 patients (6.0%) had variant t(v;22), and 79 (6.9%) additional cytogenetic aberrations (ACAs). Of these, 38 patients (3.3%) lacked the Y chromosome (-Y) and 41 patients (3.6%) had ACAs except -Y; 16 of these (1.4%) were major route (second Philadelphia [Ph] chromosome, trisomy 8, isochromosome 17q, or trisomy 19) and 25 minor route (all other) ACAs. After a median observation time of 5.3 years for patients with t(9;22), t(v;22), -Y, minor- and major-route ACAs, the 5-year PFS was 90%, 81%, 88%, 96%, and 50%, and the 5-year OS was 92%, 87%, 91%, 96%, and 53%, respectively. In patients with major-route ACAs, the times to CCR and MMR were longer and PFS and OS were shorter (P &lt; .001) than in patients with standard t(9;22). We conclude that major-route ACAs at diagnosis are associated with a negative impact on survival and signify progression to the accelerated phase and blast crisis.</p>

Leuk Res, 35(8), 1114–1116
August, 2011

Evolutionary sequence of cytogenetic aberrations during the oncogenesisof plasma cell disorders. Direct evidence at single cell level.

Zsófia Nagy, Béla Kajtár, Pál Jáksó, Mariann Dávid, Szabolcs Kosztolányi, Judit Hermesz, László Kereskai, László Pajor, Donát Alpár

<p>Bone marrow specimens from 185 patients with plasma cell disorders (PCD) were investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in order to determine the temporal sequence of cytogenetic aberrations. In 25 cases combined FISH analysis has also been performed at single cell level. Clonal evolution was observed in 16% of cases. The Δ13 was preceded by t(4;14)(p16;q32) and t(14;16)(q32;q23) translocations. Deletion of p53 gene was a secondary aberration compared to Δ13 and t(11;14)(q13;q32) translocation. In 22% of all cases with recurrent IGH translocation, this aberration was presented only in a subset of purified plasma cells questioning its initiating role.</p>

Stem Cell Rev, 7(2), 471–477
June, 2011

An improved technique for chromosomal analysis of human ES and iPScells.

Daniela Moralli, Mohammed Yusuf, Mohammad A Mandegar, Suhail Khoja, Zoia L Monaco, Emanuela V Volpi

Prolonged in vitro culture of human embryonic stem (hES) cells can result in chromosomal abnormalities believed to confer a selective advantage. This potential occurrence has crucial implications for the appropriate use of hES cells for research and therapeutic purposes. In view of this, time-point karyotypic evaluation to assess genetic stability is recommended as a necessary control test to be carried out during extensive 'passaging'. Standard techniques currently used for the cytogenetic assessment of ES cells include G-banding and/or Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH)-based protocols for karyotype analysis, including M-FISH and SKY. Critical for both banding and FISH techniques are the number and quality of metaphase spreads available for analysis at the microscope. Protocols for chromosome preparation from hES and human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells published so far appear to differ considerably from one laboratory to another. Here we present an optimized technique, in which both the number and the quality of chromosome metaphase spreads were substantially improved when compared to current standard techniques for chromosome preparations. We believe our protocol represents a significant advancement in this line of work, and has the required attributes of simplicity and consistency to be widely accepted as a reference method for high quality, fast chromosomal analysis of human ES and iPS cells.

Blood, 117(15), e161–e170
April, 2011

Myelodysplasia and leukemia of Fanconi anemia are associated witha specific pattern of genomic abnormalities that includes crypticRUNX1/AML1 lesions.

Samuel Quentin, Wendy Cuccuini, Raphael Ceccaldi, Olivier Nibourel, Corinne Pondarre, Marie-Pierre Pagès, Nadia Vasquez, Catherine Dubois d'Enghien, Jérôme Larghero, Peffault de Latour, Régis, Vanderson Rocha, Jean-Hugues Dalle, Pascale Schneider, Mauricette Michallet, Gérard Michel, André Baruchel, François Sigaux, Eliane Gluckman, Thierry Leblanc, Dominique Stoppa-Lyonnet, Claude Preudhomme, Gérard Socié, Jean Soulier

<p>Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetic condition associated with bone marrow (BM) failure, myelodysplasia (MDS), and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We studied 57 FA patients with hypoplastic or aplastic anemia (n = 20), MDS (n = 18), AML (n = 11), or no BM abnormality (n = 8). BM samples were analyzed by karyotype, high-density DNA arrays with respect to paired fibroblasts, and by selected oncogene sequencing. A specific pattern of chromosomal abnormalities was found in MDS/AML, which included 1q+ (44.8%), 3q+ (41.4%), -7/7q (17.2%), and 11q- (13.8%). Moreover, cryptic RUNX1/AML1 lesions (translocations, deletions, or mutations) were observed for the first time in FA (20.7%). Rare mutations of NRAS, FLT3-ITD, MLL-PTD, ERG amplification, and ZFP36L2-PRDM16 translocation, but no TP53, TET2, CBL, NPM1, and CEBPα mutations were found. Frequent homozygosity regions were related not to somatic copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity but to consanguinity, suggesting that homologous recombination is not a common progression mechanism in FA. Importantly, the RUNX1 and other chromosomal/genomic lesions were found at the MDS/AML stages, except for 1q+, which was found at all stages. These data have implications for staging and therapeutic managing in FA patients, and also to analyze the mechanisms of clonal evolution and oncogenesis in a background of genomic instability and BM failure.</p>

PLoS Genet, 7(4), e1002042
April, 2011

DNA damage, somatic aneuploidy, and malignant sarcoma susceptibilityin muscular dystrophies.

Wolfgang M Schmidt, Mohammed H Uddin, Sandra Dysek, Karin Moser-Thier, Christine Pirker, Harald Höger, Inge M Ambros, Peter F Ambros, Walter Berger, Reginald E Bittner

Albeit genetically highly heterogeneous, muscular dystrophies (MDs) share a convergent pathology leading to muscle wasting accompanied by proliferation of fibrous and fatty tissue, suggesting a common MD-pathomechanism. Here we show that mutations in muscular dystrophy genes (Dmd, Dysf, Capn3, Large) lead to the spontaneous formation of skeletal muscle-derived malignant tumors in mice, presenting as mixed rhabdomyo-, fibro-, and liposarcomas. Primary MD-gene defects and strain background strongly influence sarcoma incidence, latency, localization, and gender prevalence. Combined loss of dystrophin and dysferlin, as well as dystrophin and calpain-3, leads to accelerated tumor formation. Irrespective of the primary gene defects, all MD sarcomas share non-random genomic alterations including frequent losses of tumor suppressors (Cdkn2a, Nf1), amplification of oncogenes (Met, Jun), recurrent duplications of whole chromosomes 8 and 15, and DNA damage. Remarkably, these sarcoma-specific genetic lesions are already regularly present in skeletal muscles in aged MD mice even prior to sarcoma development. Accordingly, we show also that skeletal muscle from human muscular dystrophy patients is affected by gross genomic instability, represented by DNA double-strand breaks and age-related accumulation of aneusomies. These novel aspects of molecular pathologies common to muscular dystrophies and tumor biology will potentially influence the strategies to combat these diseases.

Mol Cytogenet, 4, 16

Biclonal myelodysplastic syndrome involving six chromosomes and monoallelicloss of RB1 - A rare case.

Walid Al-Achkar, Abdulsamad Wafa, Elisabeth Klein, Abdulmunim Aljapawe

<p>Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) represents a group of clonal hematological disorders characterized by progressive cytopenia, and reflects to defects in erythroid, myeloid and megakaryocytic maturation. MDS is more frequently observed in older aged patients with cytogenetic abnormalities like monosomy of chromosome(s) 5 and/or 7. In 50% of de novo MDS cases, chromosomal aberrations are found and rearrangements involving the retinoblastoma (RB1) gene in 13q14 are found. Here, we are presenting a case report of a rare biclonal MDS with a karyotype of 45, XY,-4, der(6)t(4;6)(p15.1;p21.3), der(8)t(4;8)(q31.2;q22), t(13;16)(q21.3;p11.2)11/45, XY, der(7)t(7;13)(p22.2~22.3;q21.3),-13 9. The patient was diagnosed according to WHO classification as refractory anemia with excess of blasts (RAEB-II).Immunophenotyping was positive for CD11b, CD11c, CD10, CD13, CD15, CD16 and CD33. We report, a novel and cytogenetically rare case of a biclonal MDS with complex chromosomal aberrations and deletion of RB1-gene in both clones. These findings are associated with a poor prognosis as the patient died 3 months after diagnosis.</p>

Methods Mol Biol, 730, 203–218

The use of M-FISH and M-BAND to define chromosome abnormalities.

Ruth N. Mackinnon, Ilse Chudoba

Multicolour fluorescence in situ hybridisation (M-FISH) and multicolour banding (M-BAND) are advanced chromosome painting techniques combining multiple chromosome- or region-specific paints in one step. M-FISH identifies all chromosomes or chromosome arms at once, whereas M-BAND identifies the different regions of a single chromosome. The use of either or both can improve the accuracy of karyotyping and help identify cryptic chromosome rearrangements. These probes are prepared by pooling multiple chromosome- or chromosome region-specific DNA libraries, each labelled with a unique combination of fluorochromes. Commercial probes are available, avoiding the need for probe preparation. In the protocol described here, a commercial probe is used. Well-spread metaphases are prepared according to standard techniques, followed by alkaline denaturation and application of the denatured probe. After an incubation period, the slides are washed. A fluorescence microscope with filter sets specific to the fluorescent labels is used for analysis, together with specialised image analysis software. The software interprets the combination of fluorochromes to identify each chromosome and produce a false colour image specific for each chromosome or region. The single colour galleries - which show the hybridisation patterns of the individual fluorochromes - are useful to help interpret and confirm the false colour images produced by the software, including ambiguous signals.

PLoS One, 6(12), e28368

Characterization of Abcc4 gene amplification in stepwise-selectedmouse J774 macrophages resistant to the topoisomerase II inhibitorciprofloxacin.

Béatrice Marquez, Geneviève Ameye, Coralie M Vallet, Paul M Tulkens, Hélène A Poirel, Françoise Van Bambeke

<p>Exposure of J774 mouse macrophages to stepwise increasing concentrations of ciprofloxacin, an antibiotic inhibiting bacterial topoisomerases, selects for resistant cells that overexpress the efflux transporter Abcc4 (Marquez et al. [2009] Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53: 2410-2416), encoded by the Abcc4 gene located on Chromosome 14qE4. In this study, we report the genomic alterations occurring along the selection process. Abcc4 expression progressively increased upon selection rounds, with exponential changes observed between cells exposed to 150 and 200 µM of ciprofloxacin, accompanied by a commensurate decrease in ciprofloxacin accumulation. Molecular cytogenetics experiments showed that this overexpression is linked to Abcc4 gene overrepresentation, grading from a partial trisomy of Chr 14 at the first step of selection (cells exposed to 100 µM ciprofloxacin), to low-level amplifications (around three copies) of Abcc4 locus on 1 or 2 Chr 14 (cells exposed to 150 µM ciprofloxacin), followed by high-level amplification of Abcc4 as homogeneous staining region (hsr), inserted on 3 different derivative Chromosomes (cells exposed to 200 µM ciprofloxacin). In revertant cells obtained after more than 60 passages of culture without drug, the Abcc4 hsr amplification was lost in approx. 70% of the population. These data suggest that exposing cells to sufficient concentrations of an antibiotic with low affinity for eukaryotic topoisomerases can cause major genomic alterations that may lead to the overexpression of the transporter responsible for its efflux. Gene amplification appears therefore as a mechanism of resistance that can be triggered by non-anticancer agents but contribute to cross-resistance, and is partially and slowly reversible.</p>

Mol Cytogenet, 4(1), 8

A rare case of t(11;22) in a mantle cell lymphoma like B-cell neoplasiaresulting in a fusion of IGL and CCND1: case report.

Cristiano Krings Rocha, Inka Praulich, Iris Gehrke, Michael Hallek, Karl-Anton Kreuzer

ABSTRACT: The chromosomal translocation (11;14)(q13;q32) rearranging the locus for cyclin D1 (CCND1) to that of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) can be found in virtually all cases of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), while other CCND1 translocations are extremely rare. As CCND1 overexpression and activation is a hallmark of MCL it is regarded as a central biological mechanism in the development and maintenance of this disease.Here we present a patient initially diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) where chromosome banding analysis revealed, among other aberrations, a translocation (11;22)(q13;q11.2). We show by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis that on chromosome 22 the immunoglobulin light chain lambda (IGL) is involved in this cytogenetic aberration. Additionally, we demonstrate the resulting overexpression of CCND1 on the RNA and protein level, thereby consolidating the new diagnosis of a MCL-like B-cell neoplasia. Summing up, we described a rare case of t(11;22)(q13;q11.2) in a MCL-like neoplasia and showed that this aberration leads to an overexpression of CCND1 which is regarded as a key biological feature in MCL. This case underlines the importance of cytogenetic analyses especially in atypical cases of B cell lymphomas.

BMC Biotechnol, 11, 121

Combining M-FISH and Quantum Dot technology for fast chromosomalassignment of transgenic insertions.

Mohammed Yusuf, David L V Bauer, Daniel M Lipinski, Robert E MacLaren, Richard Wade-Martins, Kalim U Mir, Emanuela V Volpi

Physical mapping of transgenic insertions by Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) is a reliable and cost-effective technique. Chromosomal assignment is commonly achieved either by concurrent G-banding or by a multi-color FISH approach consisting of iteratively co-hybridizing the transgenic sequence of interest with one or more chromosome-specific probes at a time, until the location of the transgenic insertion is identified.Here we report a technical development for fast chromosomal assignment of transgenic insertions at the single cell level in mouse and rat models. This comprises a simplified 'single denaturation mixed hybridization' procedure that combines multi-color karyotyping by Multiplex FISH (M-FISH), for simultaneous and unambiguous identification of all chromosomes at once, and the use of a Quantum Dot (QD) conjugate for the transgene detection.Although the exploitation of the unique optical properties of QD nanocrystals, such as photo-stability and brightness, to improve FISH performance generally has been previously investigated, to our knowledge this is the first report of a purpose-designed molecular cytogenetic protocol in which the combined use of QDs and standard organic fluorophores is specifically tailored to assist gene transfer technology.

Leuk Res, 34(8), 1002–1006
August, 2010

Recurrent involvement of heterochromatic regions in multiple myeloma-amulticolor FISH study.

Kathrin Lange, Dorothea Gadzicki, Brigitte Schlegelberger, Gudrun Göhring

Chromosome aberrations are important prognostic markers in multiple myeloma (MM), but their identification may be hampered by complexity of the karyotypes. Using multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (mFISH), we found cryptic aberrations in 7 of 10 patients with a complex karyotype. Moreover, in addition to typical aberrations involving 1q, 13q, 14q and 17p and structural aberrations in chromosomes 1, 6, 9 and 19, (iso)dicentric chromosomes and whole-arm translocations were detected. These chromosome aberrations were generated by breaks in heterochromatic regions indicating an increased breakage of these regions, which may predispose to the generation of chromosome aberrations in multiple myeloma.

J Nucl Med, 51(8), 1318–1325
August, 2010

In vivo formation of gamma-H2AX and 53BP1 DNA repair foci in bloodcells after radioiodine therapy of differentiated thyroid cancer.

Michael Lassmann, Heribert Hänscheid, Daniela Gassen, Johannes Biko, Viktor Meineke, Christoph Reiners, Harry Scherthan

DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are critical cellular lesions that can result from ionizing radiation exposure. A marker for DSB formation is the phosphorylated form of the histone H2 variant H2AX (gamma-H2AX). DSBs also attract the damage sensor p53-binding protein 1 (53BP1) to the DSB-containing chromatin, because 53BP1 associates with the DSB-surrounding chromatin. We studied the induction, persistence, and disappearance of radiation-induced gamma-H2AX and 53BP1 foci after the first (131)I therapy of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma, a model for protracted, continuous, internal whole-body irradiation. METHODS: Twenty-six patients (7 men, 19 women; mean age +/- SD, 42 +/- 13 y) underwent posttherapeutic blood dosimetry according to the standard operating procedure of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine, including peripheral blood sampling and external dose rate measurements at 2-144 h after administration of (131)I for thyroid remnant ablation. The mean time curves of dose accumulation and dose rate to the blood were compared with the mean gamma-H2AX and 53BP1 foci counts over the same period in samples of mononuclear peripheral blood leukocytes. RESULTS: The mean absorbed dose to the blood in 24 patients evaluable for physical dosimetry was 0.31 +/- 0.10 Gy (minimum, 0.17 Gy; maximum, 0.57 Gy). After 24 h, the mean daily dose increment was less than 0.05 Gy. The excess focus counts per nucleus–that is, nuclear foci in excess of the low background count–peaked at 2 h after radioiodine administration (median excess foci for gamma-H2AX [n = 21 patients], 0.227, and for 53BP1 [n = 19 patients], 0.235) and progressively declined thereafter. Significantly elevated numbers of excess focus counts per nucleus (median excess foci for gamma-H2AX [n = 8 patients], 0.054, and for 53BP1 [n = 6 patients], 0.046) still were present at 120-144 h after therapy. Because the rate of occurrence of radiation-induced focus counts per nucleus per absorbed dose varied considerably among patients, a dose-response relationship could not be established for this series as a whole. The number of excess radiation-induced focus counts per nucleus per absorbed dose rate increased with time, potentially indicating a slower rate of DNA repair or, alternatively, a higher de novo rate of focus formation. The values over time of both radiation-induced DSB markers correlated closely (r(2) = 0.973). CONCLUSION: Radiation-induced gamma-H2AX and 53BP1 nuclear foci are useful markers for detecting radiation exposure after radionuclide incorporation, even for absorbed doses to the blood below 20 mGy.

Mutat Res, 701(1), 52–59
August, 2010

Complex exchanges are responsible for the increased effectivenessof C-ions compared to X-rays at the first post-irradiation mitosis.

Ryonfa Lee, Sylwester Sommer, Carola Hartel, Elena Nasonova, Marco Durante, Sylvia Ritter

<p>The purpose of the present study was to investigate as to what extent differences in the linear energy transfer (LET) are reflected at the chromosomal level. For this study human lymphocytes were exposed to 9.5 MeV/u C-ions (1 or 2 Gy, LET=175 keV/microm) or X-rays (1-6 Gy), harvested at 48, 72 or 96 h post-irradiation and aberrations were scored in first cycle metaphases using 24 color fluorescence in situ hybridization (mFISH). Additionally, in selected samples aberrations were measured in prematurely condensed G2-phase cells. Analysis of the time-course of aberrations in first cycle metaphases showed a stable yield of simple and complex exchanges after X-ray irradiation. In contrast, after C-ion exposure the yields profoundly increased with harvesting time complicating the estimation of the frequency of aberrations produced by high LET particles within the entire cell population. This is especially true for the yield of complex exchanges. Complex aberrations dominate the aberration spectrum produced by C-ions. Their fraction was about 50\% for the two measured doses. In contrast, isodoses of X-rays induced smaller proportions of complex aberrations (i.e. 5% and 15%, respectively). For both radiation qualities the fraction of complexes did not change with harvesting time. As expected from the different dose deposition of high and low LET radiation, complex exchanges produced by high LET C-ions involved more breaks and more chromosomes than those induced by isodoses of X-rays. Noteworthy, C-ions but not X-rays induced a small number of complex chromatid-isochromatid exchanges that are not expected for cells exposed in the G0-phase. The results obtained so far for cells arrested in G2-phase confirm these patterns. Altogether our data show that the increased effectiveness of C-ions for the induction of aberrations in first cycle cells is determined by complex exchanges, whereas for simple exchanges the relative biological effectiveness is about one.</p>

Radiat Res, 174(1), 20–26
July, 2010

Influence of nuclear geometry on the formation of genetic rearrangementsin human cells.

M. Durante, D. Pignalosa, J. A. Jansen, X. F. Walboomers, S. Ritter

Interphase chromosomes are divided into discrete domains, with limited overlapping and movement. We explored the role of nuclear topology in the formation of chromosome aberrations by irradiating normal human fibroblasts with high-energy heavy ions from different directions. Cells with elliptical nuclei were grown in an aligned manner onto micrometer grooved culturing substrates to have a predetermined orientation with respect to the accelerated iron ions. Particles were directed either perpendicular to the cell layer or along the major or minor axis of the nucleus. Analysis of chromosome aberrations by mFISH showed that, at the same radiation dose, the yield of chromosomal damage and its complexity are largely modified by the irradiation geometry. The results demonstrate that the architecture of the cell nucleus determines the formation of chromosomal rearrangements.

Cancer Genet Cytogenet, 200(2), 79–99
July, 2010

Transgenic oncogenes induce oncogene-independent cancers with individualkaryotypes and phenotypes.

Andreas Klein, Nan Li, Joshua M Nicholson, Amanda A McCormack, Adolf Graessmann, Peter Duesberg

Cancers are clones of autonomous cells defined by individual karyotypes, much like species. Despite such karyotypic evidence for causality, three to six synergistic mutations, termed oncogenes, are generally thought to cause cancer. To test single oncogenes, they are artificially activated with heterologous promoters and spliced into the germ line of mice to initiate cancers with collaborating spontaneous oncogenes. Because such cancers are studied as models for the treatment of natural cancers with related oncogenes, the following must be answered: 1) which oncogenes collaborate with the transgenes in cancers; 2) how do single transgenic oncogenes induce diverse cancers and hyperplasias; 3) what maintains cancers that lose initiating transgenes; 4) why are cancers aneuploid, over- and underexpressing thousands of normal genes? Here we try to answer these questions with the theory that carcinogenesis is a form of speciation. We postulate that transgenic oncogenes initiate carcinogenesis by inducing aneuploidy. Aneuploidy destabilizes the karyotype by unbalancing teams of mitosis genes. This instability thus catalyzes the evolution of new cancer species with individual karyotypes. Depending on their degree of aneuploidy, these cancers then evolve new subspecies. To test this theory, we have analyzed the karyotypes and phenotypes of mammary carcinomas of mice with transgenic SV40 tumor virus- and hepatitis B virus-derived oncogenes. We found that (1) a given transgene induced diverse carcinomas with individual karyotypes and phenotypes; (2) these karyotypes coevolved with newly acquired phenotypes such as drug resistance; (3) 8 of 12 carcinomas were transgene negative. Having found one-to-one correlations between individual karyotypes and phenotypes and consistent coevolutions of karyotypes and phenotypes, we conclude that carcinogenesis is a form of speciation and that individual karyotypes maintain cancers as they maintain species. Because activated oncogenes destabilize karyotypes and are dispensable in cancers, we conclude that they function indirectly, like carcinogens. Such oncogenes would thus not be valid models for the treatment of cancers.

Radiat Res, 174(1), 14–19
July, 2010

Inversions in chromosome 10 of human thyroid cells induced by acceleratedheavy ions.

D. Pignalosa, S. Ritter, M. Durante

Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is a known radiation-induced tumor. Rearrangements in human chromosome 10 and in particular intrachromosomal exchanges are often associated with PTC formation. In this study we measured intrachromosomal exchanges in human thyroid follicular cells exposed to sparsely or densely ionizing radiation. Assuming that inversions in chromosome 10 are a biomarker of PTC risk, we estimated the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of heavy ions using a molecular marker in vitro. The analysis of chromosomal aberrations was performed with the mBAND technique, which allows detection of both inter- and intrachromosomal exchanges. Our results do not show any significant increase in the yield of intrachanges in samples exposed to heavy ions compared to X rays. Within the constraints imposed by the experimental model we used, we conclude that heavy ions would not necessarily be more effective than X rays in the induction of thyroid cancer.

Mutat Res
March, 2010

mBAND analysis of chromosome aberrations in human epithelial cellsinduced by gamma-rays and secondary neutrons of low dose rate.

M. Hada, B. Gersey, P. B. Saganti, R. Wilkins, F. A. Cucinotta, H. Wu

Human risks from chronic exposures to both low- and high-LET radiation are of intensive research interest in recent years. In the present study, human epithelial cells were exposed in vitro to gamma-rays at a dose rate of 17mGy/h or secondary neutrons of 25mGy/h. The secondary neutrons have a broad energy spectrum that simulates the Earth's atmosphere at high altitude, as well as the environment inside spacecrafts like the Russian MIR station and the International Space Station (ISS). Chromosome aberrations in the exposed cells were analyzed using the multicolor banding in situ hybridization (mBAND) technique with chromosome 3 painted in 23 colored bands that allows identification of both inter- and intrachromosome exchanges including inversions. Comparison of present dose responses between gamma-rays and neutron irradiations for the fraction of cells with damaged chromosome 3 yielded a relative biological effectiveness (RBE) value of 26+/-4 for the secondary neutrons. Our results also revealed that secondary neutrons of low dose rate induced a higher fraction of intrachromosome exchanges than gamma-rays, but the fractions of inversions observed between these two radiation types were indistinguishable. Similar to the previous findings after acute radiation exposures, most of the inversions observed in the present study were accompanied by other aberrations. The fractions of complex type aberrations and of unrejoined chromosomal breakages were also found to be higher in the neutron-exposed cells than after gamma-rays. We further analyzed the location of the breaks involved in chromosome aberrations along chromosome 3, and observed hot spots after gamma-ray, but not neutron, exposures.

Biomaterials, 31(8), 2010–2014
March, 2010

Induction of DNA double-strand breaks in primary gingival fibroblastsby exposure to dental resin composites.

Ebru Urcan, Harry Scherthan, Marianthi Styllou, Uschi Haertel, Reinhard Hickel, Franz-Xaver Reichl

Dental resin composites and their reactive monomers/co-monomers have been shown to elicit cytotoxic responses in human gingival fibroblasts (HGF), and their metabolic radical intermediates have the potential to attack the DNA backbone, which may induce DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). In this study we have tested the cytotoxicity and induction of DSBs by the most common composite resin monomers/co-monomers: BisGMA, HEMA, TEGDMA, and UDMA in gingival fibroblasts using the sensitive gamma-H2AX DNA repair focus assay. Our results show increasing monomer cytotoxicities in the order of BisGMA>UDMA>TEGDMA>HEMA, an order that was also observed for their capacity to induce DSBs. BisGMA at the EC50 concentration of 0.09 mm evoked the highest rate of gamma-H2AX foci-formation that was 11-fold higher DNA DSBs as compared to the negative controls that ranged between 0.25 and 0.5gamma-H2AX foci/HGF cell. Our results for the first time show that exposure to dental resin monomers can induce DSBs in primary human oral cavity cells, which underscores their genotoxic capacity.

Mol Biol Cell, 21(4), 511–520
February, 2010

Alzheimer Abeta peptide induces chromosome mis-segregation and aneuploidy,including trisomy 21: requirement for tau and APP.

Antoneta Granic, Jaya Padmanabhan, Michelle Norden, Huntington Potter

Both sporadic and familial Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients exhibit increased chromosome aneuploidy, particularly trisomy 21, in neurons and other cells. Significantly, trisomy 21/Down syndrome patients develop early onset AD pathology. We investigated the mechanism underlying mosaic chromosome aneuploidy in AD and report that FAD mutations in the Alzheimer Amyloid Precursor Protein gene, APP, induce chromosome mis-segregation and aneuploidy in transgenic mice and in transfected cells. Furthermore, adding synthetic Abeta peptide, the pathogenic product of APP, to cultured cells causes rapid and robust chromosome mis-segregation leading to aneuploid, including trisomy 21, daughters, which is prevented by LiCl addition or Ca(2+) chelation and is replicated in tau KO cells, implicating GSK-3beta, calpain, and Tau-dependent microtubule transport in the aneugenic activity of Abeta. Furthermore, APP KO cells are resistant to the aneugenic activity of Abeta, as they have been shown previously to be resistant to Abeta-induced tau phosphorylation and cell toxicity. These results indicate that Abeta-induced microtubule dysfunction leads to aneuploid neurons and may thereby contribute to the pathogenesis of AD.