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J. Cell Biol., 151, 95- 106

Meiotic telomere protein Ndj1p is required for meiosis-specific telomere distribution, bouquet formation and efficient homologue pairing

E. Trelles-Sticken, M.E. Dresser, H. Scherthan

We have investigated the requirements for NDJ1 in meiotic telomere redistribution and clustering in synchronized cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. On induction of wild-type meiosis, telomeres disperse from premeiotic aggregates over the nuclear periphery, and then cluster near the spindle pole body (bouquet arrangement) before dispersing again. In ndj1Δ meiocytes, telomeres are scattered throughout the nucleus and fail to form perinuclear meiosis-specific distribution patterns, suggesting that Ndj1p may function to tether meiotic telomeres to the nuclear periphery. Since ndj1Δ meiocytes fail to cluster their telomeres at any prophase stage, Ndj1p is the first protein shown to be required for bouquet formation in a synaptic organism. Analysis of homologue pairing by two-color fluorescence in situ hybridization with cosmid probes to regions on III, IX, and XI revealed that disruption of bouquet formation is associated with a significant delay (>2 h) of homologue pairing. An increased and persistent fraction of ndj1Δ meiocytes with Zip1p polycomplexes suggests that chromosome polarization is important for synapsis progression. Thus, our observations support the hypothesis that meiotic telomere clustering contributes to efficient homologue alignment and synaptic pairing. Under naturally occurring conditions, bouquet formation may allow for rapid sporulation and confer a selective advantage.

Human Genetics, 104, 315- 325

The structure and dynamics of ring chromosomes in human neoplastic and non-neoplastic cells

D. Gisselson, M. Höglund, F. Mertens, B. Johansson, P. Dal Cin, den Berghe, H. Van, W. C. Earnshaw, F. Mitelman, N. Mandahl

Acquired ring chromosomes have been found in most types of human neoplasia, with a frequency approaching 10% in malignant mesenchymal tumours. In this study, the composition and dynamics of ring chromosomes were analysed in eight cases of acute myelogenous leukaemia, 17 solid tumours, and five cases with constitutional rings. Chromosomal banding and fluorescence in situ hybridisation were performed to determine the content and the structural heterogeneity of the rings. Telomeric repeats were detected using peptide nucleic acid probes or primed in situ labelling, whereas centromeric activity was evaluated by detection of kinetochore proteins. Mitotic instability was assessed by the frequency of anaphase bridges. The results suggest that human ring chromosomes can be structurally and functionally divided into two categories. In the first of these, size variation is minimal and rearrangement at cell division is uncommon. The majority of such rings contain subtelomeric sequences. Constitutional ring chromosomes and most rings in leukaemias belong to this group, whereas only a few mesenchymal tumours exhibit rings of this type. The second category consists of rings with amplified sequences, primarily from chromosome 12, characteristically occurring in atypical lipomatous tumours and other subtypes of low or borderline malignant mesenchymal neoplasms. Variation in size and number is extensive, and breakage-fusion-bridge events occur at a high frequency. Abnormalities in pericentromeric sequences are common and, in some cases, kinetochores assemble in the absence of alphoid DNA. We conclude that it is not only the ring structure per se or the neoplastic nature of the host cell that determines ring instability, but probably also the functional role of the genes carried in the ring.

Pathology, 31, 337- 344

Oncogene Amplification in Medulloblastoma: Analysis of a Case by Comparative Genomic Hybridization and Fluorescence in situ Hybridization

V. Jay, J. Squire, J. Bayant, A.M. Alkhani, J.T. Rutka, M. Zielenska

<p>We describe amplification of the MYCC oncogene in a medulloblastoma with aggressive clinical behavior. The patient was a six year old boy who underwent gross total surgical excision of a cerebellar tumor. Despite chemotherapy and total neuraxis radiation, the clinical course was one of relentless progression, with extensive subarachnoid spread and death within eight months of presentation. The pathological features were consistent with the recently described, "large cell variant" of medulloblastoma. Tumor cells exhibited large vesicular nuclei, prominent nucleoli and strong immunoreactivity for synaptophysin. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay revealed no evidence of MYCN amplification or 1p deletion in the tumor. FISH analysis revealed evidence of MYCC amplification in the 20- to 30-fold range. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) revealed regions of gains and amplification in three locations, with gains of chromosome 7, amplification of 8q24 (corresponding to the MYCC locus) and gains of the long arm of chromosome 17 (suggestive of isochromosome 17q). While conventional karyotypic analysis was not successful in the present case, CGH provided invaluable information about gene amplification and losses/gains of chromosomes and chromosomal regions. Thus, CGH is a powerful technique applicable to frozen or paraffin-embedded material which helps to ascertain the presence of gene amplification even without prior knowledge of the gene to be tested.</p>

Genes Chromosomes Cancer, 21, 1- 4

Minimal Sizes of Deletions Detected by Comperative Genomic Hybridization

M. Bentz, A. Plesch, S. Stigenbauer, H. Döhner, P. Lichter

<p>Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) has been used widely for the molecular cytogenetic analysis of tumors. Until now, the spatial resolution of this technique for diagnosing deletions of chromosomal sequences has not been assessed in detail. In the present study, we performed CGH analyses on five DNA samples derived from B-cell leukemias with 11q deletions, the sizes of which ranged from 3 Mbp to 14-18 Mbp. CGH experiments were evaluated by two established commercial analysis systems. Deletions down to a size of 10-12 Mbp were diagnosed based on a diagnostic threshold value of 0.8, if the vast majority of cells carried the deletion. For cases with smaller deletions, the ratio profiles were shifted toward underrepresentation at the respective chromosomal bands; however, the diagnostic threshold value was not reached. In all five cases, there was complete agreement between the two image analysis systems.</p>

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 95, 167- 171

Creation of monosomic derivatives of human cultured cell lines

D.J. Clarke, J.F. Giménez-Abián, H. Tönnies, H. Neitzel, K. Sperling, C.S. Downes, R.T. Johnson

Monosomic mammalian cell lines would be ideal for studying gene dosage effects, including gene imprinting, and for systematic isolation of recessive somatic mutants parallel to the invaluable mutants derived from haploid yeast. But autosomal monosomies are lethal in early development; although monosomies appear in tumors, deriving cell lines from these tumors is difficult and cannot provide several syngenic lines. We have developed a strategy for generating stable monosomic human cells, based on random autosomal integration of the gpt plasmid, partial inhibition of DNA topoisomerase II during mitosis to promote chromatid nondisjunction, and selection against retention of gpt. These are likely to be valuable as a source of otherwise inaccessible mutants. The strategy can also be used to generate partial mammalian monosomies, which are desirable as a source of information on recessive genes and gene imprinting.

PNAS, 95, 8147- 8152

Evolution of the avia sex chromosomes from an anchestral pair of autosomes

A.-K. Fridolfsson, H. Cheng, N.G. Copeland, N.A. Jenkins, H.-C. Liu, T. Raudsepp, T. Woodage, B. Chowdhary, J. Halverson, H. Ellegren

Among the mechanisms whereby sex is determined in animals, chromosomal sex determination is found in a wide variety of distant taxa. The widespread but not ubiquitous occurrence, not even within lineages, of chromosomal sex determination suggests that sex chromosomes have evolved independently several times during animal radiation, but firm evidence for this is lacking. The most favored model for this process is gradual differentiation of ancestral pairs of autosomes. As known for mammals, sex chromosomes may have a very ancient origin, and it has even been speculated that the sex chromosomes of mammals and birds would share a common chromosomal ancestry. In this study we showed that the two genes, ATP5A1 and CHD1, so far assigned to the female-specific W chromosome of birds both exist in a very closely related copy on the Z chromosome but are not pseudoautosomal. This indicates a common ancestry of the two sex chromosomes, consistent with the evolution from a pair of autosomes. Comparative mapping demonstrates, however, that ATP5A1 and CHD1 are not sex-linked among eutherian mammals; this is also not the case for the majority of other genes so far assigned to the avian Z chromosome. Our results suggest that the evolution of sex chromosomes has occurred independently in mammals and birds.

Journal of Cell Biology, 141, 21- 29

Yeast Nuclei Display Prominent Centromere Clustering That Is Reduced in Nondividing Cells and in Meiotic Propahse

Q.-W. Jin, E. Trelles-Sticken, H. Sherthan, J. Loidl

Chromosome arrangement in spread nuclei of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was studied by fluorescence in situ hybridization with probes to centromeres and telomeric chromosome regions. We found that during interphase centromeres are tightly clustered in a peripheral region of the nucleus, whereas telomeres tend to occupy the area outside the centromeric domain. In vigorously growing cultures, centromere clustering occurred in approximately 90% of cells and it appeared to be maintained throughout interphase. It was reduced when cells were kept under stationary conditions for an extended period. In meiosis, centromere clusters disintegrated before the emergence of the earliest precursors of the synaptonemal complex. Evidence for the contribution of centromere clustering to other aspects of suprachromosomal nuclear order, in particular the vegetative association of homologous chromosomes, is provided, and a possible supporting role in meiotic homology searching is discussed.

American Journal of Pathology, 152, 1107- 1123

DNA Copy Number Amplifications In Human Neoplasms

S. Knuutila, A.-M. Björkqvist, K. Autio, M. Tarkkanen, et al, M. Wolf

This review summarizes reports of recurrent DNA sequence copy number amplifications in human neoplasms detected by comparative genomic hybridization. Some of the chromosomal areas with recurrent DNA copy number amplifications (amplicons) of 1p22-p31, 1p32-p36, 1q, 2p13-p16, 2p23-p25, 2q31-q33, 3q, 5p, 6p12-pter, 7p12-p13, 7q11.2, 7q21-q22, 8p11-p12, 8q, 11q13-q14, 12p, 12q13-q21, 13q14, 13q22-qter, 14q13-q21, 15q24-qter, 17p11.2-p12, 17q12-q21, 17q22-qter, 18q, 19p13.2-pter, 19cen-q13.3, 20p11.2-p12, 20q, Xp11.2-p21, and Xp11-q13 and genes therein are presented in more detail. The paper with more than 150 references and two tables can be accessed from our web site The data will be updated biannually until the year 2001.

Chromosome Res, 6, 478- 494

Interspecies comparative genome hybridization and interspecies representational difference analysis reveal gross DNA differences between humans and great apes

R. Toder, Y. Xia, E. Bausch

Comparative chromosome G-/R-banding, comparative gene mapping and chromosome painting techniques have demonstrated that only few chromosomal rearrangements occurred during great ape and human evolution. Interspecies comparative genome hybridization (CGH), used here in this study, between human, gorilla and pygmy chimpanzee revealed species-specific regions in all three species. In contrast to the human, a far more complex distribution of species-specific blocks was detected with CGH in gorilla and pygmy chimpanzee. Most of these blocks coincide with already described heterochromatic regions on gorilla and chimpanzee chromosomes. Representational difference analysis (RDA) was used to subtract the complex genome of gorilla against human in order to enrich gorilla-specific DNA sequences. Gorilla-specific clones isolated with this technique revealed a 32-bp repeat unit. These clones were mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to the telomeric regions of gorilla chromosomes that had been shown by interspecies CGH to contain species-specific sequences.

Genes, Chromsomes & Cancer, 23, 141- 152

Genetic Heterogeneity of Neuroblastoma Studied by Comparative Genomic Hybridization

J. Vandesompele, N. Van Roy, et al, M. Van Gele

<p>Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis was performed on 36 neuroblastomas of both low and high stage of disease. This study significantly increases the number of neuroblastoma tumors studied by CGH. Analysis of larger series of tumors is particularly important in view of the different clinical subgroups that are recognized for this tumor. The present data and a comparison with all published CGH data on neuroblastoma provide further insights into the genetic heterogeneity of neuroblastoma. Stage 1, 2, and 4S tumors showed predominantly whole chromosome gains and losses. A similar pattern of whole chromosome imbalances, although less frequent, was observed in stage 3 and 4 tumors, in addition to partial chromosome gains and losses. An increase in chromosome 17 or 17q copy number was observed in 81% of tumors. The most frequent losses, either through partial or whole chromosome underrepresentation, were observed for 1p (25%), 3p (25%), 4p (14%), 9p (19%), 11q (28%), and 14q (31%). The presence of 3p, 11q or 14q deletions defines a genetic subset of neuroblastomas and contributes to the further genetic characterization of stage 3 and 4 tumors without MYCN amplification (MNA) and 1p deletion. The present study also provides additional evidence for a possible role of genes at 11q13 in neuroblastoma. In a few cases, 1p deletion or MNA detected by FISH or Southern blotting was not found by CGH, indicating that the use of a second, independent technique for evaluation of these genetic parameters is recommended.</p>

Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics, 78, 96- 102

Monosomy 6 in human cultured fibroblast-like cells after long-term stimulation with acidic fibroblast growth factor (FGF1)

W. Krone, H. Kehrer-Sawatzki, A. Siegel, H. Röck, H. Götz

Long-term exposure to fibroblast growth factor type 1 (FGF1) of fibroblast-like cells derived from neurofibromas of patients with neurofibromatosis type 1, from angiofibromas of patients with tuberous sclerosis, and from foreskin of unaffected donors resulted in the outgrowth of monosomy 6 in 7 out of 14 cell lines examined. After their initial detection by cytogenetic analysis, the proportion of cells which had lost one chromosome 6 was monitored by FISH using a-satellite probes specific for chromosome 6 and 7, and by PCR analysis of polymorphic microsatellite markers. Monosomy 6 exceeding baseline levels developed only in cultures exposed to FGF 1, and the emergence of monosomic cells could not be correlated with a given donor's genotype. During serial culture, the proportion of monosomic cells increased to over 90% in 5 of the 7 affected strains. A conspicuous change of cellular morphology from spindle-shaped to more epithelial-type cells was noted in monosomic cultures, even though none of them converted to a permanent cell line during the observation period. We conclude that long-term exposure of human fibroblast-like cell strains to FGF1 results in the emergence of monosomy 6 in 50% of the cultures so treated. A selective advantage for such monosomic cells is the most likely explanation for their steady increase during serial culture.

J Neuropathol Exp Neurol, 56, 743- 748

Detection of Malignant Cells in Cerebrospinal Fluid Using Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization

R.J. Van Oostenbrugg, A.H.N. Hopman, M.H. Lenders, P. Van Heerde, J.-W. Arends, F.C.S. Ramaekers, A. Twijnstra

Cytologic examination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is the diagnostic gold standard for leptomeningeal metastasis (LMM). However, this technique is only moderately sensitive when routine staining procedures are applied. The use of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to identify malignant cells may have an additional value in diagnosing LMM, since numerical chromosomal aberrations (NCA) can be detected at the single cell level. We tested the feasibility of FISH to detect tumor cells in CSF by analyzing 22 samples with proven LMM with a probe for chromosome 1 (1q12) to detect NCA in the cells. A control group consisted of samples from 10 patients with inflammatory neurologic disease. In 7 LMM samples no cells or only lysed cells were found, due to time delay before fixation. Of the other 15 LMM samples analyzed, 13 showed NCA (87%), while no NCA were found in the control group. Our results indicate that FISH may be a useful additional diagnostic tool to the cytodiagnosis of CSF in cases of LMM. We expect that FISH can become an additional marker for malignancy at the single cell level in patients with LMM, which may also be of use to determine the effect of therapy for LMM.

Cancer Genet Cytogenet, 97, 135- 142

Comparative Genomic Hybridization Analysis of Human Neuroblastomas: Detection of Distal 1p Deletions and Further Molecular Genetic Characterization of Neuroblastoma Cell Lines

N. Van Roy, A. Jauch, M. Van Gele, G. Laureys, R. Versteeg, A. De Paepe, T. Cremer, F. Speleman

The molecular basis of malignant mesothelioma is poorly known. We examined genetic changes in 11 mesothelioma specimens by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Five DNA specimens originated from uncultured tumor tissues and six from cell lines established from the same patients. Findings from the classical karyotypic characterization of both primary tumors and cell lines have been reported previously. In the CGH analyses the most common genetic alterations in the 11 mesothelioma specimens were losses of chromosomal regions in 1p, 8p, 14q, and 22q and gains of 5p, 6p, 8q, 15q, 17q, and 20. The cell lines had on average a much higher total number of genetic changes than the uncultured tumor specimens. Clonal relationship between the cell lines and the uncultured tissue specimens could not usually be demonstrated even though they originated from the same patient. The observed differences may partly be due to high frequency of chromosomal rearrangements, which CGH cannot detect, partly due to contamination of tumor specimens with normal tissue, and partly due to genetic evolution in tumor cell lines.

Mutation Research, 372, 259- 268

Spontaneous rates of sex chromosomal aneuploidies in sperm and offspring of mice: a validation of the detection of aneuploid sperm by fluorescence in situ hybridization

I.-D. Adler, J. Bishop, X. Lowe, T.E. Schmid, G. Schriever-Schwemm, W. Xu, A.J. Wyrobek

<p>This study was designed to evaluate the frequency of aneuploid sperm in young adult mice of the genotype (102/E1 x C3H/E1)F1 determined by the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) procedure and to evaluate the frequencies of aneuploid sperm observed by FISH compared with the frequencies of aneuploid offspring. Three-chromosome FISH was applied to determine the fractions of hyperhaploid and diploid sperm with DNA probes specific for chromosomes X, Y and 8. The animals were treated with three common solvents. Sperm smears were prepared for FISH by two similar protocols and were scored by different persons and in two different laboratories. There were no significant differences between scorers or laboratories. The frequencies of the sex chromosome aneuploidies in sperm (Y-Y and X-Y) were compared to the frequencies of mice carrying sex chromosome aneuploidy among controls of the heritable translocation assay in studies conducted from 1975-1995. To identify aneuploid individuals, untreated males and females of the genotype (102/E1 x C3H/E1)F1 were mated to assess their fertility by observing three consecutive litters. Semisterile and sterile animals were further analysed by meiotic cytogenetics and by karyotyping to determine the incidence of reciprocal translocations and sex chromosome aneuploidies (XXY and XYY). Based on the analysis of 175247 sperm and 9840 progeny, the frequency of Y-Y sperm was 0.01% while 0.03% of the offspring were XYY. The frequency of X-Y sperm was 0.005% while 0.02% of the offspring were XXY. The frequencies of aneuploid sex chromosomes were not significantly different between sperm and offspring. This allows two conclusions. First, there was no detectable prenatal selection against these sex-chromosomal aneuploid offspring, and second, germ cell aneuploidy can be reliably determined in mice by sperm FISH analyses.</p>

Blood, 87, 2459- 2463

The Abnormal Eosinophils Are Part of the Leukemic Cell Population in Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia With Abnormal Eosinophils (AML M4Eo) and Carry the Pericentric Inversion 16: A Combination of May-Grünwald-Giemsa Staining and FISH

T. Haferlach, M. Winkemann, H. Löffler, R. Schoch, W. Gassmann, C. Fonatsch, C. Schoch, M. Poetsch, K. Weber-Matthiesen, B. Schlegelberger

The French-American-British subtype acute myelomonocytic leukemia with abnormal eosinophils (FAB AML M4Eo) with pericentric inversion of chromosome 16 is cytomorphologically defined by a myelomonoblastic blast population and abnormal eosinophils. Until now, it remained an open question whether these abnormal eosinophils are part of the malignant clone or an epiphenomenon. We analyzed five cases of AML M4Eo with inv(16) and combined May-Grünwald-Giemsa staining with fluorescence in situ hybridization using yeast artificial chromosome clone 854E2, which spans the inv(16) breakpoint on 16p. In the case of inv(16), three instead of the normal two hybridization signals can be observed both on metaphase spreads and in interphase cells. With this approach, we were able to show inversion 16 in abnormal eosinophils and, therefore, identified them as a part of the leukemic cell population.

Cancer Genet Cytogenet, 89, 7- 13

Gains and losses of DNA sequences in malignant mesothelioma by comparative genomic hybridisation

P. Kivipensas, A.-M. Björkqvist, R. Karhu, K. Pelin, K. Linnainmaa, L. Tammilehto, K. Mattson, O.-P. Kallioniemi, S. Knuutila

The molecular basis of malignant mesothelioma is poorly known. We examined genetic changes in 11 mesothelioma specimens by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Five DNA specimens originated from uncultured tumor tissues and six from cell lines established from the same patients. Findings from the classical karyotypic characterization of both primary tumors and cell lines have been reported previously. In the CGH analyses the most common genetic alterations in the 11 mesothelioma specimens were losses of chromosomal regions in 1p, 8p, 14q, and 22q and gains of 5p, 6p, 8q, 15q, 17q, and 20. The cell lines had on average a much higher total number of genetic changes than the uncultured tumor specimens. Clonal relationship between the cell lines and the uncultured tissue specimens could not usually be demonstrated even though they originated from the same patient. The observed differences may partly be due to high frequency of chromosomal rearrangements, which CGH cannot detect, partly due to contamination of tumor specimens with normal tissue, and partly due to genetic evolution in tumor cell lines.

Blood, 87, 5269- 5278

DNA copy number changes in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma - Comparative genomic hybridization study

O. Monni, H. Joensuu, K. Franssila, S. Knuutila

We studied DNA copy number changes in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma using comparative genomic hybridization analysis on 20 primary tumors and on 12 recurrent tumors excised after chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Twenty-nine (91%) of the cases showed abnormal copy number karyotypes. Chromosomal regions at X (41%), 1q (38%), 7 (31%), 3 (24%), 6p (21%), 11 (21%), 12 (21%), and 18 (21%) were most frequently gained, and the most common losses involved 6q (38%), X (21%), 1p (14%), and 8p (10%). High-level amplifications were observed at 6p23-ter, 10p12-14, 17p1l.2, 18q21-ter, and Xq22-ter, all but 18q appearing only in the recurrent tumors. Gains (median, 2; range, 0 to 10) were more frequent than losses (median, 1; range, 0 to 7; P = .0004). The median number of aberrations found in the recurrent tumors (6.5) was greater than that in the primary tumors (2; P = .01). The copy number changes found in the recurrent tumors were more random than those found in the primary tumors, which were mainly located in the most frequently affected regions. Our findings are in line with those observed using conventional cytogenetic analysis, but especially novel high-level amplifications were detected. Southern blot analysis showed BCL2 amplification, but not translocation t(14;18)(q32;q21), in cases in which a gain at 18q was detected by comparative genomic hybridization, which strongly suggests that, in addition to translocation, gene amplification is another mechanism for the overexpression of the BCL2 protein.

Genes Chromosomes Cancer, 16, 31- 34

Ring chromosomes in parosteal osteosarcoma contain sequences from 12q13-15. A combined cytogenetic and comparative genomic hybridization study

J. Szymanska, N. Mandahl, F. Mertens, M. Tarkkanen, E. Karaharju, S. Knuutila

<p>Seven parosteal osteosarcoma (POS) samples, six of which were cytogenetically characterized, were studied by using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). All samples showed DNA sequence copy number changes (mean, six aberrations/tumor; range, 1-13); gains were more frequent than losses. Gain of 12q13-15 sequences was found in every tumor and correlated with the presence of ring chromosomes. High-level amplification, which was detected in four tumors, was seen only in chromosome 12, with 12q13-14 as the minimal common region. By using chromosome painting, one of the rings of one case was shown to be composed entirely of chromosome 12 material. Together with previous data, our findings show that gain of 12q13-15 sequences is a characteristic feature of POS and that these sequences are contained within the ring chromosomes.</p>

American Journal of Pathology, 2, 463- 468

Translocation t(2/5) is not a primary event in Hodgkin's disease. Simultaneous immunophenotyping and interphase cytogenetics

K. Weber-Matthiesen, J. Deerberg-Wittram, A. Rosenwald, M. Poetsch, W. Grote, B. Schlegelberger

A number of neoplastic disorders are characterized by recurrent chromosome aberrations. One of these is the translocation t(2;5), which is found in a considerable percentage of large-cell anaplastic lymphomas. This translocation results in the fusion of two genes, alk and npm. The recent discovery of alk/npm mRNA in 11 of 13 cases of Hodgkin's disease has caused a controversial discussion concerning the question of whether t(2;5) is also present in Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells. We tackled this problem on the molecular cytogenetic level by combined CD30 immunophenotyping and interphase cytogenetics. Using a pair of DNA probes flanking both sides of the npm gene breakpoint at 5q35 we were able to prove, at least in 12 of 13 cases of Hodgkin's disease, that all CD30-positive Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells lacked the translocation t(2;5). Fifteen to forty-five Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg cells were analyzed per case (mean, 27). Our findings indicate that this translocation is not a primary event in the development of Hodgkin's disease.