Mutation Research, 372, 259- 268

Spontaneous rates of sex chromosomal aneuploidies in sperm and offspring of mice: a validation of the detection of aneuploid sperm by fluorescence in situ hybridization

I.-D. Adler, J. Bishop, X. Lowe, T.E. Schmid, G. Schriever-Schwemm, W. Xu, A.J. Wyrobek

<p>This study was designed to evaluate the frequency of aneuploid sperm in young adult mice of the genotype (102/E1 x C3H/E1)F1 determined by the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) procedure and to evaluate the frequencies of aneuploid sperm observed by FISH compared with the frequencies of aneuploid offspring. Three-chromosome FISH was applied to determine the fractions of hyperhaploid and diploid sperm with DNA probes specific for chromosomes X, Y and 8. The animals were treated with three common solvents. Sperm smears were prepared for FISH by two similar protocols and were scored by different persons and in two different laboratories. There were no significant differences between scorers or laboratories. The frequencies of the sex chromosome aneuploidies in sperm (Y-Y and X-Y) were compared to the frequencies of mice carrying sex chromosome aneuploidy among controls of the heritable translocation assay in studies conducted from 1975-1995. To identify aneuploid individuals, untreated males and females of the genotype (102/E1 x C3H/E1)F1 were mated to assess their fertility by observing three consecutive litters. Semisterile and sterile animals were further analysed by meiotic cytogenetics and by karyotyping to determine the incidence of reciprocal translocations and sex chromosome aneuploidies (XXY and XYY). Based on the analysis of 175247 sperm and 9840 progeny, the frequency of Y-Y sperm was 0.01% while 0.03% of the offspring were XYY. The frequency of X-Y sperm was 0.005% while 0.02% of the offspring were XXY. The frequencies of aneuploid sex chromosomes were not significantly different between sperm and offspring. This allows two conclusions. First, there was no detectable prenatal selection against these sex-chromosomal aneuploid offspring, and second, germ cell aneuploidy can be reliably determined in mice by sperm FISH analyses.</p>

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