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blood, 1850-1859

Telomerase functions beyond telomere maintenance in primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma

Edith Chevret, Laetitia Andrique, Martina Prochazkova-Carlotti, Jacky Ferrer, David Cappellen, Elodie Laharanne, Yamina Idrissi, Anna Boettiger, Wafa Sahraoui, Florian Ruiz, Anne Pham-Ledard, Beatrice Vergier, Francis Belloc, Pierre Dubus, Marie Beylot-Barry, Jean-Philippe Merlio

Telomere erosion may be counteracted by telomerase. Here we explored telomere length (TL) and telomerase activity (TA) in primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) by using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and interphase quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization assays. Samples from patients with S´ezary syndrome (SS), transformed mycosis fungoides (T-MF), and cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma were studied in parallel with corresponding cell lines to evaluate the relevance of TL and TA as target candidates for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Compared with controls, short telomeres were observed in aggressive CTCL subtypes such as SS and T-MF and were restricted to neoplastic cells in SS. While no genomic alteration of the hTERT (human telomerase catalytic subunit) locus was observed in patients’ tumor cells, TA was detected. To understand the role of telomerase in CTCL, we manipulated its expression in CTCL cell lines. Telomerase inhibition rapidly impeded in vitro cell proliferation and led to cell death, while telomerase overexpression stimulated in vitro proliferation and clonogenicity properties and favored tumor development in immunodeficient mice. Our data indicate that, besides maintenance of TL, telomerase exerts additional functions in CTCL. Therefore, targeting these functions might represent an attractive therapeutic strategy, especially in aggressive CTCL.

Modern Pathology, 402-411

Multiple genetic alterations in primary cutaneous large B-cell lymphoma, leg type support a common lymphomagenesis with activated B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

Anne Pham-Ledard, Martina Prochazkova-Carlotti, Laetitia Andrique, David Cappellen, Béatrice Vergier, Fabian Martinez, Florent Grange, Tony Petrella, Marie Beylot-Barry, Jean-Philippe Merlio

<p>Primary cutaneous large B-cell lymphoma, leg type has been individualized from nodal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The objective of this study was to screen primary cutaneous large B-cell lymphoma, leg type for genetic alterations recently described in nodal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Skin biopsies from 23 patients were analyzed for IRF4, BCL2, BCL6, and MYC expression. FISH testing was performed for BCL2, BCL6, MYC with separation probes and for CDKN2A and PRDM1/BLIMP1 deletion. Multiple sequential FISH analyses with up to six probes were performed to define samples with multiple cytogenetic alterations. MYD88 mutations were studied by Sanger sequencing. All cases but one displayed at least one genetic alteration (96%). Nine patients exhibited a single genetic mutation and 12 combined several alterations (52%). We observed a split for BCL2, BCL6, or MYC in 1/23, 6/23, and 3/23 of cases, respectively. No double-hit lymphoma was observed. CDKN2A deletion was detected by FISH in only 5/23 cases. BLIMP1 and/or 6q deletion was observed at a higher rate in 10/20 of cases. No correlation between rearrangement and immunohistochemical expression was found for BCL2 or MYC. FISH tracking of sequential hybridizations showed that several alterations were carried by the same nuclei. The p.L265P MYD88 mutation was found in 11/18 (61%) of cases. Contrary to most cutaneous lymphomas that rarely harbor primary genetic alteration of their nodal histological equivalent, primary cutaneous large B-cell lymphoma, leg type seems to be a 'cutaneous counterpart' of activated B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with a similar cytogenetic profile and a high rate of MYD88 oncogenic L265P mutation. This also suggests a common lymphomagenesis with NF-jB activation, strong IRF4 expression and terminal B-cell differentiation blockage. Our data support the use of therapies targeting NF-jB, as most patients displayed disease progression and resistance to conventional therapies.</p>

EJNMMI Res, 4(1), 17

Visualization of angiogenesis during cancer development in the polyoma middle T breast cancer model: molecular imaging with (R)-[11C]PAQ.

Samén, Erik, Lu, Li, Mulder, Jan, Thorell, Jan-Olov, Damberg, Peter, Tegnebratt, Tetyana, Holmgren, Lars, Rundqvist, Helene, Stone-Elander, Sharon

Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) is a crucial mediator of tumour angiogenesis. High expression levels of the receptor have been correlated to poor prognosis in cancer patients. Reliable imaging biomarkers for stratifying patients for anti-angiogenic therapy could therefore be valuable for increasing treatment success rates. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics and angiogenesis imaging abilities of the VEGFR2-targeting positron emission tomography (PET) tracer (R)-[11C]PAQ.(R)-[11C]PAQ was evaluated in the mouse mammary tumour virus-polyoma middle T (MMTV-PyMT) model of metastatic breast cancer. Mice at different stages of disease progression were imaged with (R)-[11C]PAQ PET, and results were compared to those obtained with [18 F]FDG PET and magnetic resonance imaging. (R)-[11C]PAQ uptake levels were also compared to ex vivo immunofluorescence analysis of tumour- and angiogenesis-specific biomarkers. Additional pharmacokinetic studies were performed in rat and mouse.A heterogeneous uptake of (R)-[11C]PAQ was observed in the tumorous mammary glands. Ex vivo analysis confirmed the co-localization of areas with high radioactivity uptake and areas with elevated levels of VEGFR2. In some animals, a high focal uptake was observed in the lungs. The lung uptake correlated to metastatic and angiogenic activity, but not to uptake of [18 F]FDG PET. The pharmacokinetic studies revealed a limited metabolism and excretion during the 1-h scan and a distribution of radioactivity mainly to the liver, kidneys and lungs. In rat, a high uptake was additionally observed in adrenal and parathyroid glands.The results indicate that (R)-[11C]PAQ is a promising imaging biomarker for visualization of angiogenesis, based on VEGFR2 expression, in primary tumours and during metastasis development.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1186/2191-219X-4-17

Molecular cytogenetics, 7, 71

Karyotypic evolutions of cancer species in rats during the long latent periods after injection of nitrosourea.

Bloomfield, Mathew, McCormack, Amanda, Mandrioli, Daniele, Fiala, Christian, Aldaz, C Marcelo, Duesberg, Peter

A century of research has established that cancers arise from tissues exposed to carcinogens only after long latencies of years to decades and have individual clonal karyotypes. Since speciation from known precursors also depends on long latencies and new species also have individual karyotypes, we and others have recently proposed that carcinogenesis is a form of speciation. According to this theory karyotypic evolutions generate new cancer species from normal cells as follows: Carcinogens induce aneuploidy (Figure 1). By unbalancing thousands of genes aneuploidy automatically destabilizes the karyotype and thus catalyzes random karyotypic variations. Selections of variants with proliferative phenotypes form non-clonal hyperplasias with persistently varying karyotypes. Very rare karyotypic variations form new cancer species with individual clonal karyotypes. Despite destabilization by the resulting congenital aneuploidies, cancer karyotypes are stabilized within narrow margins of variation by clonal selections for cancer-specific autonomy. Because all non-cancerous aneuploidies are unstable, all aneusomies of prospective cancers are joined in single-steps, rather than gradually. Since this mechanism is very inefficient, it predicts long latent periods from carcinogens to cancers and individual clonal cancer karyotypes. Here we have tested the predicted roles of karyotypic evolutions during the time course of carcinogenesis in an established experimental system. In this system injection of nitrosourea induces in female rats non-invasive mammary hyperplasias ("tumors") after two or more months, and invasive carcinomas after six or more months. Accordingly four specific predictions were tested: (1) Invasive cancers are late and carry individual clonal karyotypes and phenotypes, (2) Persistent hyperplasias carry non-clonal karyotypes, (3) Non-clonal hyperplasias generate clonal cancers spontaneously but rarely, (4) Cancer-karyotypes arise with all individual clonal aneusomies in single-steps. All four predictions were experimentally confirmed. Our results along with the literature reveal a coherent karyotypic mechanism of carcinogenesis: Carcinogens induce aneuploidy. The inherent instability of aneuploidy automatically catalyzes new karyotypic variations. Aneuploid karyotypes with proliferative phenotypes form varying non-clonal hyperplasias. Rare variations form cancer species with individual clonal karyotypes, which are stabilized by clonal selection for autonomy. The low odds of this mechanism explain the long latencies of carcinogenesis, the individuality and karyotypic clonality of cancers.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1186/s13039-014-0071-x

J Dermatol Sci, 72(3), 304–310
December, 2013

A purified Feverfew extract protects from oxidative damage by inducing DNA repair in skin cells via a PI3-kinase-dependent Nrf2/ARE pathway.

Karien J. Rodriguez, Heng-Kuan Wong, Thierry Oddos, Michael Southall, Balz Frei, Simarna Kaur

Environmental factors such as solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation and other external aggressors provide an oxidative challenge that is detrimental to skin health. The levels of endogenous antioxidants decrease with age, thus resulting in less protection and a greater potential for skin damage. The NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) - antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway is a primary defense mechanism against oxidative stress, and induces the expression of antioxidant, detoxification and repair genes. Activation of ARE-Nrf2 can help restore oxidative homeostasis of the skin and play a role in inflammatory response and DNA repair mechanisms.To evaluate the role of a purified parthenolide-depleted Feverfew (PD-Feverfew) extract on the ARE-Nrf2 pathway and DNA repair in skin cells.These studies were undertaken in primary human keratinocytes or KB cells using Luciferase Promoter assay, siRNA transfection studies, Western blot analyses, Immunofluorescence microscopy, comet assay and quantitative real-time PCR.PD-Feverfew was found to induce Nrf2 nuclear translocation and to increase ARE activity in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, knockdown of Nrf2 resulted in suppression of PD-Feverfew-induced ARE activity. PD-Feverfew was also found to induce phosphorylation of Akt, a kinase downstream of PI3K. Inhibition of PI3K via pre-treatment with the selective pharmacological inhibitor, LY294002, abolished PD-Feverfew-induced Nrf2/ARE activation. PD-Feverfew also reduced UV-induced DNA damage in a PI3K and Nrf2-dependent manner.Therefore, by increasing endogenous defense mechanisms and aid in DNA repair of damaged skin cells via activation of a PI3K-dependent Nrf2/ARE pathway, PD-Feverfew may help protect the skin from numerous environmental aggressors.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1016/j.jdermsci.2013.08.004

Haematologica, 98(12), e166–e168
December, 2013

First description of the t(10;11)(q22;q23)/MLL-TET1 translocationin a T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma, with subsequent lineage switchto acute myelomonocytic myeloid leukemia.

Antoine Ittel, Eric Jeandidier, Catherine Helias, Nathalie Perrusson, Catherine Humbrecht, Bruno Lioure, Isabelle Mazurier, Caroline Mayeur-Rousse, Amandine Lavaux, Sylvie Thiebault, Felix Lerintiu, Carine Gervais, Laurent Mauvieux

<p>In the April 2013 issue of Haematologica, Lee <em>et al.</em> have described the <em>TET1</em> genomic breakpoints and clinical features of <em>MLL-TET1</em> rearranged cases of acute leukemia. So far, 13 cases have been reported in the literature, 11 in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients and 2 in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). It was also recently reported that <em>MLL</em> is fused to <em>TET1</em> in only 5 out of 1,590 <em>MLL</em> rearranged <em>AML</em> cases (0.3%). Although those cases are very uncommon, their study can improve our current understanding of leukemogenesis. We report here the first t(10;11) <em>MLL-TET1</em> positive case of T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma occurring in a 31-year old male patient, with a subsequent transformation to AML.</p> <p>The patient was referred for a large mediastinal mass and right pleural effusion. Blood cell count showed no abnormalities. Mediastinal and bronchus biopsies led to the diagnosis of a precursor-T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (pre-T LBL), expressing CD3, CD5, CD4, CD8 and CD10 antigens, together with a high expression of Ki67 (90%). No expression of CD34 or CD79a was observed. The same cells were observed in pleural fluid that expressed CD3, CD4, CD8, CD2, CD7, CD10 antigens but neither CD34 nor myeloperoxidase. Bone marrow examination and central nervous system imaging did not show any other specific localization. The patient was treated following the Groupe d’Etudes des Lymphomes de l’Adulte (GELA) LL03 protocol, and was considered in complete remission after induction and consolidation phases. A 32×22×48 mm residual mediastinal mass remained after treatment, without hypermetabolic abnormality on the FDG-PET scan and was considered to be fibronecrotic scar tissue. Fourteen months after the diagnosis, during the maintenance therapy, a bone marrow examination was performed for thrombopenia (6 g/L) that revealed a myelomonocytic acute leukemia with trilineage dysplasia. The mediastinal mass remained unchanged on the imaging scan. The patient achieved complete remission after intensive chemotherapy based on cytarabine and daunorubicin, followed by a consolidation course with high-dose cytarabine. A non-familial donor allogeneic bone marrow transplant (10/10 match) was performed four months after the diagnosis of the acute myeloid leukemia that was complicated by a Grade IV acute graft-<em>versus</em>-host disease involving digestive tract, liver and skin. The patient died 54 days after the transplant of bacterial sepsis leading to multi-organ failure.</p>

Reprod Biomed Online
December, 2013

Correlation between aneuploidy, apoptotic markers and DNA fragmentationin spermatozoa from normozoospermic patients.

Xavier Vendrell, Minerva Ferrer, Elena García-Mengual, Patricia Muñoz, Juan Carlos Triviño, Carmen Calatayud, Vanesa Y. Rawe, Miguel Ruiz-Jorro

Genetic and biochemical sperm integrity is essential to ensure the reproductive competence. However, spermatogenesis involves physiological changes that could endanger sperm integrity. DNA protamination and apoptosis have been studied extensively. Furthermore, elevated rates of aneuploidy and DNA injury correlate with reproductive failures. Consequently, this study applied the conventional spermiogram method in combination with molecular tests to assess genetic integrity in ejaculate from normozoospermic patients with implantation failure by retrospectively analysing aneuploidy (chromosomes 18, X, Y), DNA fragmentation, externalization of phosphatidylserine and mitochondrial membrane potential status before and after magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS). Aneuploid, apoptotic and DNA-injured spermatozoa decreased significantly after MACS. A positive correlation was detected between reduction of aneuploidy and decreased DNA damage, but no correlation was determined with apoptotic markers. The interactions between apoptotic markers, DNA integrity and aneuploidy, and the effect of MACS on these parameters, remain unknown. In conclusion, use of MACS reduced aneuploidy, DNA fragmentation and apoptosis. A postulated mechanism relating aneuploidy and DNA injury is discussed; on the contrary, cell death markers could not be related. An 'apoptotic-like' route could explain this situation. Genetic and biochemical sperm integrity is essential to ensure reproductive success and support the earliest phases of embryo development. Paradoxically, spermatogenesis involves physiological changes that could endanger the DNA and cell integrity. Sperm-specific mechanisms have been studied extensively, and DNA packaging and programmed cell death (apoptosis) are potentially harmful. Also, elevated rates of chromosomal numerical abnormalities and breakage of sperm DNA have been correlated with reproductive failures. In this context, basic sperm examination methods have been combined with molecular tests to assess genetic integrity. On the other hand, magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) can reduce the number of programmed-to-death spermatozoa. This system retains damaged spermatozoa, thereby improving the sample's quality. The relationships between apoptosis, DNA integrity and chromosomal abnormalities (aneuploidy) as a whole, and the effect of MACS on these parameters remain unknown. We analysed aneuploidy, DNA damage, and biochemical markers of cell death in ejaculate from normozoospermic patients with implantation failures before and after MACS. Aneuploid, apoptotic and DNA-injured spermatozoa decreased significantly after MACS. A positive correlation was detected between the reduction of aneuploidy and DNA damage; on the contrary, no correlation was determined with apoptotic markers. In conclusion, the use of MACS reduced aneuploidy, DNA breakages and apoptosis. A hypothesized mechanism relating aneuploidy and DNA injury is discussed; on the contrary, death cell markers could not be directly related. An 'apoptotic-like' route could explain this situation.

Neoplasia, 15(11), 1301–1313
November, 2013

Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres: Recurrent Cytogenetic Aberrations and Chromosome Stability under Extreme Telomere Dysfunction.

Despoina Sakellariou, Maria Chiourea, Christina Raftopoulou, Sarantis Gagos

Human tumors using the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) exert high rates of telomere dysfunction. Numerical chromosomal aberrations are very frequent, and structural rearrangements are widely scattered among the genome. This challenging context allows the study of telomere dysfunction-driven chromosomal instability in neoplasia (CIN) in a massive scale. We used molecular cytogenetics to achieve detailed karyotyping in 10 human ALT neoplastic cell lines. We identified 518 clonal recombinant chromosomes affected by 649 structural rearrangements. While all human chromosomes were involved in random or clonal, terminal, or pericentromeric rearrangements and were capable to undergo telomere healing at broken ends, a differential recombinatorial propensity of specific genomic regions was noted. We show that ALT cells undergo epigenetic modifications rendering polycentric chromosomes functionally monocentric, and because of increased terminal recombinogenicity, they generate clonal recombinant chromosomes with interstitial telomeric repeats. Losses of chromosomes 13, X, and 22, gains of 2, 3, 5, and 20, and translocation/deletion events involving several common chromosomal fragile sites (CFSs) were recurrent. Long-term reconstitution of telomerase activity in ALT cells reduced significantly the rates of random ongoing telomeric and pericentromeric CIN. However, the contribution of CFS in overall CIN remained unaffected, suggesting that in ALT cells whole-genome replication stress is not suppressed by telomerase activation. Our results provide novel insights into ALT-driven CIN, unveiling in parallel specific genomic sites that may harbor genes critical for ALT cancerous cell growth.

Br J Haematol
October, 2013

Fusion of the additional sex combs like 1 and teashirt zinc fingerhomeobox 2 genes resulting from ider(20q) aberration in a patientwith myelodysplastic syndrome.

Jana Brezinova, Iveta Sarova, Halka Buryova, Jana Markova, Sarka Ransdorfova, Silvia Izakova, Karla Kostylkova, Jacqueline Soukupova, Zuzana Zemanova, Kyra Michalova

A variant of del(20q), an isochromosome of the long arm with the loss of an interstitial part of 20q, ider(20q), has been reported in patients with myeloid diseases (Li et al, 2004). About 40 cases with this rearrangement have been reported up to 2012 (reviewed by Mullier et al, 2012). Molecular cytogenetic and array techniques have been used for mapping of the deleted region on 20q (Douet-Guilbert et al, 2009). The proximal breakpoints are consistently located in the 20q11.21 band, and the distal breakpoints span from band 20q13.13 to band 20q13.33.

Stem Cell Res, 12(1), 1–10
September, 2013

uPAR-controlled oncolytic adenoviruses eliminate cancer stem cellsin human pancreatic tumors.

Luciano Sobrevals, Ana Mato-Berciano, Nerea Urtasun, Adela Mazo, Cristina Fillat

Pancreatic tumors contain cancer stem cells highly resistant to chemotherapy. The identification of therapies that can eliminate this population of cells might provide with more effective treatments. In the current work we evaluated the potential of oncolytic adenoviruses to act against pancreatic cancer stem cells (PCSC). PCSC from two patient-derived xenograft models were isolated from orthotopic pancreatic tumors treated with saline, or with the chemotherapeutic agent gemcitabine. An enrichment in the number of PCSC expressing the cell surface marker CD133 and a marked enhancement on tumorsphere formation was observed in gemcitabine treated tumors. No significant increase in the CD44, CD24, and epithelial-specific antigen (ESA) positive cells was observed. Neoplastic sphere-forming cells were susceptible to adenoviral infection and exposure to oncolytic adenoviruses resulted in elevated cytotoxicity with both Adwt and the tumor specific AduPARE1A adenovirus. In vivo, intravenous administration of a single dose of AduPARE1A in human-derived pancreatic xenografts led to a remarkable anti-tumor effect. In contrast to gemcitabine AduPARE1A treatment did not result in PCSC enrichment. No enrichment on tumorspheres neither on the CD133(+) population was detected. Therefore our data provide evidences of the relevance of uPAR-controlled oncolytic adenoviruses for the elimination of pancreatic cancer stem cells.

Mutat Res
June, 2013

Persisting ring chromosomes detected by mFISH in lymphocytes of acancer patient-A case report.

Sabine Schmitz, Michael Pinkawa, Michael J. Eble, Ralf Kriehuber

<p>We report the case of an 84 years old prostate cancer patient with severe side effects after radiotherapy in 2006. He was cytogenetically analysed in 2009 and in 2012 in a comparative study for individual radiosensitivity of prostate cancer patients. No other patient had clonal aberrations, but this patient showed ring chromosomes in the range of 21-25% of lymphocytes. He received 5 cycles of 5-fluorouracil/folic acid for chemotherapy of sigmoid colon carcinoma in 2003, three years before radiotherapy of prostate cancer. Blood samples were irradiated ex vivo with Cs-137 γ-rays (0.7Gy/min) in the G0-phase of the cell cycle. 100 FISH painted metaphases were analysed for the control and the irradiated samples each. Multicolour in situ hybridisation techniques like mFISH and mBand as well as MYC locus, telomere and centromere painting probes were used to characterise ring metaphases. Metaphase search and autocapture was performed with a Zeiss Axioplan 2 imaging microscope followed by scoring and image analysis using Metafer 4/ISIS software (MetaSystems). In 2009 chromosome 8 rings were found in about 25% of lymphocytes. Rings were stable over time and increased to about 30% until 2012. The ring chromosome 8 always lacked telomere signals and a small amount of rings displayed up to four centromere signals. In aberrant metaphases 8pter and 8qter were either translocated or deleted. Further analyses revealed that the breakpoint at the p arm is localised at 8p21.2-22. The breakpoint at the q arm turned out to be distal from the MYC locus at 8q23-24. We hypothesise that the ring chromosome 8 has been developed during the 5 FU/folic acid treatments in 2003. The long term persistence might be due to clonal expansion of a damaged but viable hematopoietic stem cell giving rise to cycling progenitor cells that permit cell survival and proliferation.</p>

Radiother Oncol, 107(3), 377–381
June, 2013

Early biomarkers related to secondary primary cancer risk in radiotherapytreated prostate cancer patients: IMRT versus IMAT.

Joke Werbrouck, Piet Ost, Valerie Fonteyne, Gert De Meerleer, Wilfried De Neve, Evelien Bogaert, Laurence Beels, Klaus Bacher, Anne Vral, Hubert Thierens

<p>To investigate whether rotational techniques (Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy - VMAT) are associated with a higher risk for secondary primary malignancies compared to step-and-shoot Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (ss-IMRT). To this end, radiation therapy (RT) induced DNA double-strand-breaks and the resulting chromosomal damage were assessed in peripheral blood T-lymphocytes of prostate cancer (PCa) patients applying γH2AX foci and G0 micronucleus (MN) assays.The study comprised 33PCa patients. A blood sample was taken before start of therapy and after the 1st and 3rd RT fraction to determine respectively the RT-induced γH2AX foci and MN. The equivalent total body dose (<em>D</em><sub>ETB</sub>) was calculated based on treatment planning data. A linear dose response was obtained for γH2AX foci yields versus (<em>D</em><sub>ETB</sub>) while MN showed a linear-quadratic dose response. Patients treated with large volume (LV) VMAT show a significantly higher level of induced γH2AX foci and MN compared to IMRT and small volume (SV) VMAT (p &lt; 0.01). Assuming a linear-quadratic relationship, a satisfactory correlation was found between both endpoints (<em>R</em><sup>2</sup> 0.86). Biomarker responses were governed by dose and irradiated volume of normal tissues. No significant differences between IMRT and rotational therapy inherent to the technique itself were observed.</p>

Asian J Androl, 15(3), 421–424
May, 2013

No difference in high-magnification morphology and hyaluronic acidbinding in the selection of euploid spermatozoa with intact DNA.

Suchada Mongkolchaipak, Teraporn Vutyavanich

In this study, we compared conventional sperm selection with high-magnification morphology based on the motile sperm organellar morphology examination (MSOME) criteria, and hyaluronic acid (HA) binding for sperm chromosome aneuploidy and DNA fragmentation rates. Semen from 50 severe male factor cases was processed through density gradient centrifugation, and subjected to sperm selection by using the conventional method (control), high magnification at ?6650 or HA binding. Aneuploidy was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization with probes for chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X and Y, and DNA fragmentation by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) method. Spermatozoa selected under high-magnification had a lower DNA fragmentation rate (2.6\% vs. 1.7\%; P=0.032), with no significant difference in aneuploidy rate (0.8\% vs 0.7\%; P=0.583), than those selected by the HA binding method. Spermatozoa selected by both methods had much lower aneuploidy and DNA fragmentation rate than the controls (7\% aneuploidy and 26.8\% DNA fragmentation rates, respectively). In the high-magnification group, the aneuploidy rate was lower when the best spermatozoa were selected than when only the second-best spermatozoa were available for selection, but the DNA fragmentation rate was not different. In conclusion, sperm selection under high magnification was more effective than under HA binding in selecting spermatozoa with low DNA fragmentation rate, but the small difference (0.9\%) might not be clinically meaningful. Both methods were better than the conventional method of sperm selection.

Basic and Clinical Andrology, 23(13), 1-8

FISH and tips: a large scale analysis of automated versus manual scoring for sperm aneuploidy detection

Guillaume Martinez, Pierre Gillois, Marine Le Mitouard, Rémy Borye, Camille Esquerré-Lamare, Véronique Satre, Louis Bujan, Sylviane Hennebicq

<p>Background Approximately 1% of the spermatozoa found in ejaculate of healthy men are aneuploid and this rate increases in the population of subfertile and infertile men. Moreover, fertilization with these aneuploid sperm can lead to impaired embryo development. Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH) is the common cytogenetic tool used for aneuploidy screening on sperm. However, it is a time-consuming technique and cytogenetic or in vitro fertilization laboratories cannot routinely use it and face the increasing demand of such analyses before Assisted Reproductive Techniques (ART). As automation can be a clue for routine practice, this study compares manual and automated scoring of sperm aneuploidy rates using a Metafer MetaSystems device. The results obtained also contribute to global data about FISH on sperm cells. Methods We recruited 100 men addressed for sperm cryopreservation. They all signed an informed consent to participate in the study. 29 men were donors or consulted before vasectomy (control group) and 71 were suffering of Hodgkin’s disease or non Hodgkin lymphoma (patient group). One semen sample was collected for each patient, analyzed according to WHO criteria and prepared for a triple-color FISH using centromeric probes for chromosomes 18, X and Y. Automated scoring was performed using a Metafer MetaSystems device. Results 507,019 cells were scored. We found a strong concordance between the automated and the manual reading (d  &lt; 0.01 in Bland-Altman test). We also did not find a statistically significant difference between the automated and the manual reading using Wilcoxon test for total aneuploidy rate (p = 0.06), sex chromosomes disomy (p = 0.33), chromosome 18 disomy (p = 0.39) and diploidy (p = 0.21). Cumulative rate of total aneuploidy was 0.78% ± 0.212% for patient group and 0.54% ± 0.15 for control group and among this, sex chromosome XY disomy rate was of 0.54% for patient group and 0.27% for control group. This study validates the automated reading for FISH on sperm with a Metafer Metasystems® device and allows its use in a laboratory routine.</p>


Reduced Placental Telomere Length during Pregnancies Complicated by Intrauterine Growth Restriction

Jérôme Toutain, Martina Prochazkova-Carlotti, David Cappellen, Ana Jarne, Edith Chevret, Jacky Ferrer, Yamina Idrissi, Fanny Pelluard, Dominique Carles, Brigitte Maugey-Laulon, Didier Lacombe, Jacques Horovitz, Jean-Philippe Merlio, Robert Saura

Recent studies have shown that telomere length was significantly reduced in placentas collected at delivery from pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction secondary to placental insufficiency. Placental telomere length measurement during ongoing pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction has never been reported. This was the main objective of our study.

J Hered
October, 2012

Development and Application of Camelid Molecular Cytogenetic Tools.

Felipe Avila, Pranab J. Das, Michelle Kutzler, Elaine Owens, Polina Perelman, Jiri Rubes, Miroslav Hornak, Warren E. Johnson, Terje Raudsepp

Cytogenetic chromosome maps offer molecular tools for genome analysis and clinical cytogenetics and are of particular importance for species with difficult karyotypes, such as camelids (2n = 74). Building on the available human-camel zoo-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) data, we developed the first cytogenetic map for the alpaca (Lama pacos, LPA) genome by isolating and identifying 151 alpaca bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones corresponding to 44 specific genes. The genes were mapped by FISH to 31 alpaca autosomes and the sex chromosomes; 11 chromosomes had 2 markers, which were ordered by dual-color FISH. The STS gene mapped to Xpter/Ypter, demarcating the pseudoautosomal region, whereas no markers were assigned to chromosomes 14, 21, 22, 28, and 36. The chromosome-specific markers were applied in clinical cytogenetics to identify LPA20, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-carrying chromosome, as a part of an autosomal translocation in a sterile male llama (Lama glama, LGL; 2n = 73,XY). FISH with LPAX BACs and LPA36 paints, as well as comparative genomic hybridization, were also used to investigate the origin of the minute chromosome, an abnormally small LPA36 in infertile female alpacas. This collection of cytogenetically mapped markers represents a new tool for camelid clinical cytogenetics and has applications for the improvement of the alpaca genome map and sequence assembly.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1093/jhered/ess067

Prenat Diagn, 32(8), 742–751
August, 2012

Identification of circulating fetal cell markers by microarray analysis.

Marie Brinch, Lotte Hatt, Ripudaman Singh, Kristine M\oller, Steffen Sommer, Niels Uldbjerg, Britta Christensen, Steen K\olvraa

Different fetal cell types have been found in the maternal blood during pregnancy in the past, but fetal cells are scarce, and the proportions of the different cell types are unclear. The objective of the present study was to identify specific fetal cell markers from fetal cells found in the maternal blood circulation at the end of the first trimester.Twenty-three fetal cells were isolated from maternal blood by removing the red blood cells by lysis or combining this with removal of large proportions of maternal white blood cells by magnetic-activated cell sorting. Fetal cells identified by XY fluorescence in situ hybridization and confirmed by reverse-color fluorescence in situ hybridization were shot off microscope slides by laser capture microdissection. The expression pattern of a subset of expressed genes was compared between fetal cells and maternal blood cells using stem cell microarray analysis.Twenty-eight genes were identified as fetal cell marker candidates.Of the 28 fetal marker candidate genes, five coded for proteins, which are located on the outer surface of the cell membrane and not expressed in blood. The protein product of these five genes, MMP14, MCAM, KCNQ4, CLDN6, and F3, may be used as markers for fetal cell enrichment.

Leukemia, 26(7), 1695–1697
July, 2012

Molecular characterization of deletions of the long arm of chromosome5 (del(5q)) in 94 MDS/AML patients.

N. Douet-Guilbert, E. De Braekeleer, A. Basinko, A. Herry, N. Gueganic, C. Bovo, K. Trillet, A. Dos Santos, M. J. Le Bris, F. Morel, J. R. Eveillard, C. Berthou, M. De Braekeleer

Deletion of the long arm of chromosome 5 (del(5q)) is a common finding in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). First described in 1974 by Van den Berghe et al.,1 the 5q- syndrome, more frequently found in old-aged females, is characterized by erythroid hypoplasia, macrocytic anemia, normal to elevated platelets count, preponderance of monolobulated megakaryocytes, isolated 5q deletion and low rate of progression to AML.

Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet, 159B(5), 598–604
July, 2012

Mild cognitive impairment identified in older individuals with Downsyndrome by reduced telomere signal numbers and shorter telomeresmeasured in microns.

Edmund C. Jenkins, Lingling Ye, Milen Velinov, Sharon J. Krinsky-McHale, Warren B. Zigman, Nicole Schupf, Wayne P. Silverman

Previously, we established that short-term T lymphocyte cultures from people with Down syndrome (DS) and dementia (Alzheimer's disease) had shorter telomeres than did those from age- and sex-matched people with DS only, quantified as significantly reduced numbers of signals of peptide nucleic acid (PNA) telomere probes in whole metaphases [Jenkins et al. (2008); Neurosci Lett 440:340-343] as well as reduced telomere probe light intensity values in interphases [Jenkins et al. (2010); Neurobiol Aging 31:765-771]. We now describe shorter telomere length in adults with DS and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) compared to age- and sex-matched individuals with DS without MCI. Telomere length is quantified by reduced telomere signal numbers and shorter chromosome 1 telomeres measured in micrometers (microns). These findings were in agreement with quantitative light intensity measurements of chromosome 1 and chromosome 21 PNA telomere probes with and without the use of a #normalizing##ratio# involving the fluorescence exhibited by a PNA probe for centromere 2, and with the use of light intensity measurements of interphase preparations. Most importantly, the distributions of chromosome 1 telomere lengths (in microns) were completely non-overlapping for adults with and without MCI, indicating that this measure has great promise as a biomarker for MCI as well as dementia in this population.