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Journal of cellular biochemistry, 120, 4804--4812
2019

Optimization of prostate cancer cell detection using multiplex tyramide signal amplification.

Roy, Sounak, Axelrod, Haley D, Valkenburg, Kenneth C, Amend, Sarah, Pienta, Kenneth J

Approximately 29 000 men die of prostate cancer (PCa) each year in the United States, and 90% to 100% of them are due to incurable bone metastasis. It is difficult to determine (1) when PCa disseminates in the natural history of the disease; (2) where cancer cell disseminates before becoming overt metastatic lesions; and (3) which tumors are aggressive and which are indolent. Tumor tissue and liquid (blood and bone marrow) biopsies provide important information to answer these questions, but significant limitations exist for immunostaining strategies that assess protein expression in these tissues. Classic immunohistochemistry (IHC) assays can typically assess expression of one or two proteins per tissue section. We have developed a novel immunofluorescence staining protocol to detect a panel of seven proteins on PCa tissue from primary tumor biopsies and metastatic lesion autopsy tissue, as well as cancer cells from liquid biopsies. We used a tyramide-based system to amplify the true signal and optimized the protocol to reduce background signal, thereby boosting the signal-to-noise ratio. Any protein-specific antibody in this protocol can be exchanged for a different validated antibody. This protocol therefore, represents a highly informative and flexible assay that can be used to provide important information about cancer tissue for the purpose of improving detection, diagnosis, and treatment.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1002/jcb.28016

The journal of pathology. Clinical research, 5, 63--78
2019

Combined epithelial marker analysis of tumour budding in stage II colorectal cancer.

Slik, Khadija, Blom, Sami, Turkki, Riku, Välimäki, Katja, Kurki, Samu, Mustonen, Harri, Haglund, Caj, Carpén, Olli, Kallioniemi, Olli, Korkeila, Eija, Sundström, Jari, Pellinen, Teijo

Tumour budding predicts survival of stage II colorectal cancer (CRC) and has been suggested to be associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the underlying molecular changes of tumour budding remain poorly understood. Here, we performed multiplex immunohistochemistry (mIHC) to phenotypically profile tumours using known EMT-associated markers: E-cadherin (adherence junctions), integrin β4 (ITGB4; basement membrane), ZO-1 (tight junctions), and pan-cytokeratin. A subpopulation of patients showed high ITGB4 expression in tumour buds, and this coincided with a switch of ITGB4 localisation from the basal membrane of intact epithelium to the cytoplasm of budding cells. Digital image analysis demonstrated that tumour budding with high ITGB4 expression in tissue microarray (TMA) cores correlated with tumour budding assessed from haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) whole sections and independently predicted poor disease-specific survival in two independent stage II CRC cohorts (hazard ratio [HR] = 4.50 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.50-13.5), n = 232; HR = 3.52 (95% CI = 1.30-9.53), n = 72). Furthermore, digitally obtained ITGB4-high bud count in random TMA cores was better associated with survival outcome than visual tumour bud count in corresponding H&E-stained samples. In summary, the mIHC-based phenotypic profiling of human tumour tissue shows strong potential for the molecular characterisation of tumour biology and for the discovery of novel prognostic biomarkers.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1002/cjp2.119

PloS one, 13, e0190970
2018

Doxorubicin-provoked increase of mitotic activity and concomitant drain of G0-pool in therapy-resistant BE(2)-C neuroblastoma.

Hultman, Isabell, Haeggblom, Linnea, Rognmo, Ingvild, Jansson Edqvist, Josefin, Blomberg, Evelina, Ali, Rouknuddin, Phillips, Lottie, Sandstedt, Bengt, Kogner, Per, Shirazi Fard, Shahrzad, Ährlund-Richter, Lars

In this study chemotherapy response in neuroblastoma (NB) was assessed for the first time in a transplantation model comprising non-malignant human embryonic microenvironment of pluripotent stem cell teratoma (PSCT) derived from diploid bona fide hESC. Two NB cell lines with known high-risk phenotypes; the multi-resistant BE(2)-C and the drug sensitive IMR-32, were transplanted to the PSCT model and the tumour growth was exposed to single or repeated treatments with doxorubicin, and thereafter evaluated for cell death, apoptosis, and proliferation. Dose dependent cytotoxic effects were observed, this way corroborating the experimental platform for this type of analysis. Notably, analysis of doxorubicin-resilient BE(2)-C growth in the PSCT model revealed an unexpected 1,5-fold increase in Ki67-index (p<0.05), indicating that non-cycling (G0) cells entered the cell cycle following the doxorubicin exposure. Support for this notion was obtained also in vitro. A pharmacologically relevant dose (1μM) resulted in a marked accumulation of Ki67 positive BE(2)-C cells (p<0.0001), as well as a >3-fold increase in active cell cycle (i.e. cells positive staining for PH3 together with incorporation of EdU) (p<0.01). Considering the clinical challenge for treating high-risk NB, the discovery of a therapy-provoked growth-stimulating effect in the multi-resistant and p53-mutated BE(2)-C cell line, but not in the drug-sensitive p53wt IMR-32 cell line, warrants further studies concerning generality and clinical significance of this new observation.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1371/journal.pone.0190970

Surgical oncology, 27, 106--113
2018

Detection of RET (rearranged during transfection) variants and their downstream signal molecules in RET rearranged lung adenocarcinoma patients.

Kim, Jeong-Oh, Shin, Jung-Young, Kim, Min Young, Son, Kyoung Hwa, Jung, Chan Kwon, Kim, Tae-Jung, Kim, Su Young, Park, Jae Kil, Sung, Sook Whan, Bae, Sang Ju, Min, Hyun Jung, Kang, Jin-Hyoung

We screened resected tumor tissues from patients with lung cancer for EGFR mutations, ALK rearrangements, and rearranged during transfection (RET) gene variants (including RET rearrangements and the Kinesin Family Member 5B (KIF5B)-RET fusion gene) using various methods including reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), transcript assays, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and immunohistochemistry (IHC). We also examined the protein expression of associated downstream signaling molecules to assess the effect of these variants on patient outcome. We constructed a tissue microarray (TMA) comprising 581 resected tumor tissues from patients with lung adenocarcinoma and analyzed the microarray by both FISH (using RET break-apart and KIF5B-RET SY translocation probes) and a commercial RET transcript assay. We evaluated the expression of RET and RET-related signaling molecules, including p-AKT and p-ERK, by TMA -based IHC staining. Among the 581 specimens, 51 (8.8%) specimens harbored RET rearrangements, including 12 cases (2.1%) carrying a KIF5B-RET fusion gene. Surprisingly, RET expression was lower in KIF5B-RET fusion gene-positive than in RET wild-type specimens. We detected activating EGFR mutations in 11 (21.6%) of the 51 RET variant-positive specimens. Among the KIF5B-RET fusion gene-positive specimens, p-ERK expression was significantly lower in the EGFR mutation subgroup showing RET expression than in the EGFR mutation subgroup that did not express RET. Similarly, the RET rearrangement group showed significant variation in the expression level of p-AKT (P?=?0.028) and p-ERK, whose expression remarkably increased in specimens not expressing RET. The expression of p-ERK markedly increased in the RET rearrangement group regardless of RET expression. This result suggests that a combination of RET and ERK inhibitors may be an effective treatment strategy for lung adenocarcinoma patients harboring RET variants.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1016/j.suronc.2018.01.006

Journal of Pathology Informatics, 9(1), 13
2018

Constant quest for quality: Digital cytopathology

Van Es, Simone L., Greaves, Janelle, Gay, Stephanie, Ross, Jennifer, Holzhauser, Derek, Badrick, Tony

Background: Special consideration should be given when creating and selecting cytopathology specimens for digitization to maximize quality. Advances in scanning and viewing technology can also improve whole-slide imaging (WSI) output quality. Methods: Accumulated laboratory experience with digitization of glass cytopathology slides was collected. Results: This paper describes characteristics of a cytopathology glass slide that can reduce quality on resulting WSI. Important points in the glass cytopathology slide selection process, preparation, scanning, and WSI-editing process that will maximize the quality of the resulting acquired digital image are covered. The paper outlines scanning solutions which have potential to predict issues with a glass cytopathology slide before image acquisition, allowing for adjustment of the scanning approach. WSI viewing solutions that better simulate the traditional microscope experience are also discussed. Conclusion: In addition to taking advantage of technical advances, practical steps can taken to maximize quality of cytopathology WSI.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.4103/jpi.jpi_6_18

Frontiers in neuroscience, 12, 55
2018

Safety and Efficacy of Scanning Ultrasound Treatment of Aged APP23 Mice.

Leinenga, Gerhard, Götz, Jürgen

Deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide leads to amyloid plaques that together with tau deposits characterize the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). In modeling this pathology, transgenic animals such as the APP23 strain, that expresses a mutant form of the amyloid precursor protein found in familial cases of AD, have been instrumental. In previous studies, we have shown that repeated treatments with ultrasound in a scanning mode (termed scanning ultrasound or SUS) were effective in removing Aβ and restoring memory functions, without the need for a therapeutic agent such as an Aβ antibody. Considering that age is the most important risk factor for AD, we extended this study in which the mice were only 12 months old at the time of treatment by assessing a cohort of 2 year-old mice. Interestingly, at this age, APP23 mice are characterized by cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) and the presence of occasional microbleeds. We found that SUS in aged mice that have been exposed to four SUS sessions that were spread out over 8 weeks and analyzed 4 weeks later did not show evidence of increased CAA or microbleeds. Furthermore, amyloid was reduced as assessed by methoxy-XO4 fluorescence. In addition, plaque-associated microglia were more numerous in SUS treated mice. Together this adds to the notion that SUS may be a treatment modality for human neurodegenerative diseases.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.3389/fnins.2018.00055

Revista brasileira de ortopedia, 53, 293--299
2018

Intra-articular viscosupplementation of hyaluronic acids in an experimental osteoarthritis model.

Oliveira, Marcello Zaia, Albano, Mauro Batista, Stirma, Guilherme Augusto, Namba, Mario Massatomo, Vidigal, Leandro, Cunha, Luiz Antonio Munhoz da

To analyze, from the immunohistochemical perspective, the effects of hyaluronic acid of different molecular weights in an experimental model of osteoarthritis in rabbits. Forty-four male California rabbits were randomly assigned to three different groups (PR, S, and P) and submitted to the resection of the anterior cruciate ligament of the right knee. Three weeks after the surgical procedure, three intra-articular weekly injections were carried out with low-molecular-weight native hyaluronic acid (Hyalgan ) to PR group, high molecular weight branched chain hyaluronic acid (Synvisc ) to group S, and saline solution 0.9% to group P. All animals were sacrificed 12 weeks after the surgical procedure, and the tibial plateaus of the infiltrated knees were then dissected. Histological sections of cartilage from the tibial plateau support areas were stained with immunohistochemical markers in order to investigate the amount of metalloproteases (MMPs 3 and 13) and their inhibitors (TIMPs 1 and 3). The staining intensity was quantified on a Zeiss Imager.Z2 Metasystems microscope and analyzed by Metafer4 Msearch software. The chondroprotective effect of the hyaluronic acids used in the study was demonstrated when compared to the control group. However, the comparison between them presented no significant statistical difference regarding chondroprotection. The injection of saline solution demonstrated signs of OA development, while adding native hyaluronic acid of low molecular weight (Hyalgan ) and hyaluronic acid of high molecular weight (Synvisc ) protected the articular cartilage in this model of OA.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1016/j.rboe.2018.03.009

TAG. Theoretical and applied genetics. Theoretische und angewandte Genetik, 131, 389--406
2018

Characterisation of Thinopyrum bessarabicum chromosomes through genome-wide introgressions into wheat.

Grewal, Surbhi, Yang, Caiyun, Edwards, Stella Hubbart, Scholefield, Duncan, Ashling, Stephen, Burridge, Amanda J, King, Ian P, King, Julie

Genome-wide introgressions of Thinopyrum bessarabicum into wheat resulted in 12 recombinant lines. Cytological and molecular techniques allowed mapping of 1150 SNP markers across all seven chromosomes of the J genome. Thinopyrum bessarabicum (2n = 2x = 14, JJ) is an important source for new genetic variation for wheat improvement due to its salinity tolerance and disease resistance. Its practical utilisation in wheat improvement can be facilitated through development of genome-wide introgressions leading to a variety of different wheat-Th . bessarabicum translocation lines. In this study, we report the generation of 12 such wheat-Th . bessarabicum recombinant lines, through two different crossing strategies, which were characterized using sequential single colour and multi-colour genomic in situ hybridization (sc-GISH and mc-GISH), multi-colour fluorescent in situ hybridization (mc-FISH) and single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) DNA markers. We also detected 13 lines containing different Th. bessarabicum chromosome aberrations through sc-GISH. Through a combination of molecular and cytological analysis of all the 25 lines containing Th. bessarabicum recombinants and chromosome aberrations we were able to physically map 1150 SNP markers onto seven Th. bessarabicum J chromosomes which were divided into 36 segmental blocks. Comparative analysis of the physical map of Th. bessarabicum and the wheat genome showed that synteny between the two species is highly conserved at the macro-level and confirmed that Th. bessarabicum contains the 4/5 translocation also present in the A genome of wheat. These wheat-Th . bessarabicum recombinant lines and SNP markers provide a useful genetic resource for wheat improvement with the latter having a wider impact as a tool for detection of introgressions from other Thinopyrum species containing the J or a closely-related genome such as Thinopyrum intermedium (J J J J StSt) and Thinopyrum elongatum (E E ), respectively.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1007/s00122-017-3009-y

Annals of diagnostic pathology, 34, 1--12
2018

Review with novel markers facilitates precise categorization of 41 cases of diagnostically challenging, "undifferentiated small round cell tumors". A clinicopathologic, immunophenotypic and molecular analysis.

Machado, Isidro, Yoshida, Akihiko, Morales, María Gema Nieto, Abrahão-Machado, Lucas Faria, Navarro, Samuel, Cruz, Julia, Lavernia, Javier, Parafioriti, Antonina, Picci, Piero, Llombart-Bosch, Antonio

Despite extensive immunohistochemical (IHC) and molecular studies combined with morphologic findings, a group of round/ovoid cell tumors histologically similar to Ewing sarcomas (ES) but lacking EWSR1-rearrangements may remain unclassifiable. We retrospectively analyzed 41 Ewing-like tumors (formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded) previously determined as negative or non-informative for EWSR1-rearrangements by FISH and/or RT-PCR. A new histopathology revision and additional IHC and molecular analyses were carried out in order to investigate whether additional IHC and/or molecular testing in combination with the morphological findings may help in reaching a definitive diagnosis. Almost all the tumors (n=40) involved soft tissue and/or bone and half the patients died of disease. In the archival cases all diagnoses were Ewing sarcoma (ES), Ewing-like sarcoma (ELS), myoepithelial tumor and undifferentiated sarcoma (US). In the new review all the tumors were re-classified as, ES (n=16), Ewing-like tumor with EWSR1 rearrangement and amplification and possible EWSR1-NFATC2 gene fusion (n=1), CIC-rearranged sarcomas or undifferentiated sarcoma, most consistent with CIC-rearranged sarcoma (n=7), sarcoma with BCOR-alteration or undifferentiated sarcoma, consistent with BCOR-associated sarcoma (n=3), neuroblastoma (n=2), unclassifiable neoplasm with neuroblastic differentiation (n=1), malignant rhabdoid tumor (n=2), lymphoblastic lymphoma (n=1), clear cell sarcoma of the gastrointestinal tract (n=1), small cell carcinoma (n=1), sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma (n=1), desmoplastic small round cell tumor (n=1), malignant peripheral sheath nerve tumor (n=1), poorly-differentiated synovial sarcoma (n=1), Possible gastrointestinal stromal tumor/GIST with predominant round cells (n=1) and possible SMARCA4-deficient-sarcoma (n=1). NKX2.2, ETV4 and BCOR immunoreactivity was observed in all ES, CIC-rearranged sarcomas and sarcomas with BCOR alteration, respectively. CIC-rearrangement by FISH was observed in many of the CIC-rearranged sarcomas. Our analysis of 41 Ewing-like tumors confirms that there may be a significant pathological and IHC overlap among Ewing-like tumors, with prognostic and therapeutic impacts. Additional IHC (NKX2.2, ETV4 and BCOR) and molecular studies including FUS, CIC or BCOR analysis may support the final diagnosis when FISH or RT-PCR fail to detect EWSR1-rearrangements. Any molecular findings should always be interpreted in relation to the specific clinical and pathological context.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1016/j.anndiagpath.2017.11.011

Scientific reports, 8, 3122
2018

Phaeophleospora vochysiae Savi & Glienke sp. nov. Isolated from Vochysia divergens Found in the Pantanal, Brazil, Produces Bioactive Secondary Metabolites.

Savi, Daiani C, Shaaban, Khaled A, Gos, Francielly Maria Wilke Ramos, Ponomareva, Larissa V, Thorson, Jon S, Glienke, Chirlei, Rohr, Jürgen

Microorganisms associated with plants are highly diverse and can produce a large number of secondary metabolites, with antimicrobial, anti-parasitic and cytotoxic activities. We are particularly interested in exploring endophytes from medicinal plants found in the Pantanal, a unique and widely unexplored wetland in Brazil. In a bio-prospecting study, strains LGMF1213 and LGMF1215 were isolated as endophytes from Vochysia divergens, and by morphological and molecular phylogenetic analyses were characterized as Phaeophleospora vochysiae sp. nov. The chemical assessment of this species reveals three major compounds with high biological activity, cercoscosporin (1), isocercosporin (2) and the new compound 3-(sec-butyl)-6-ethyl-4,5-dihydroxy-2-methoxy-6-methylcyclohex-2-enone (3). Besides the isolation of P. vochysiae as endophyte, the production of cercosporin compounds suggest that under specific conditions this species causes leaf spots, and may turn into a pathogen, since leaf spots are commonly caused by species of Cercospora that produce related compounds. In addition, the new compound 3-(sec-butyl)-6-ethyl-4,5-dihydroxy-2-methoxy-6-methylcyclohex-2-enone showed considerable antimicrobial activity and low cytotoxicity, which needs further exploration.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1038/s41598-018-21400-2

PloS one, 13, e0193213
2018

Impact of 9p deletion and p16, Cyclin D1, and Myc hyperexpression on the outcome of anaplastic oligodendrogliomas.

Michaud, Karine, de Tayrac, Marie, D'Astous, Myreille, Paquet, Claudie, Gould, Peter Vincent, Saikali, Stéphan

To study the presence of 9p deletion and p16, cyclin D1 and Myc expression and their respective diagnostic and prognostic interest in oligodendrogliomas. We analyzed a retrospective series of 40 consecutive anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (OIII) from a single institution and compared them to a control series of 10 low grade oligodendrogliomas (OII). Automated FISH analysis of chromosome 9p status and immunohistochemistry for p16, cyclin D1 and Myc was performed for all cases and correlated with clinical and histological data, event free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS). Chromosome 9p deletion was observed in 55% of OIII (22/40) but not in OII. Deletion was highly correlated to EFS (median = 29 versus 53 months, p<0.0001) and OS (median = 48 versus 83 months, p<0.0001) in both the total cohort and the OIII population. In 9p non-deleted oligodendrogliomas, p16 hyperexpression correlated with a shorter OS (p = 0.02 in OII and p = 0.0001 in OIII) whereas lack of p16 expression was correlated to a shorter EFS and OS in 9p deleted OIII (p = 0.001 and p = 0.0002 respectively). Expression of Cyclin D1 was significantly higher in OIII (median expression 45% versus 14% for OII, p = 0.0006) and was correlated with MIB-1 expression (p<0.0001), vascular proliferation (p = 0.002), tumor necrosis (p = 0.04) and a shorter EFS in the total cohort (p = 0.05). Hyperexpression of Myc was correlated to grade (median expression 27% in OII versus 35% in OIII, p = 0.03), and to a shorter EFS in 9p non-deleted OIII (p = 0.01). Chromosome 9p deletion identifies a subset of OIII with significantly worse prognosis. The combination of 9p status and p16 expression level identifies two distinct OIII populations with divergent prognosis. Hyperexpression of Bcl1 and Myc appears highly linked to anaplasia but the prognostic value is unclear and should be investigated further.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1371/journal.pone.0193213

Biological procedures online, 20, 13
2018

Optimization of Immunofluorescent Detection of Bone Marrow Disseminated Tumor Cells.

Axelrod, Haley D, Pienta, Kenneth J, Valkenburg, Kenneth C

Cancer metastasis is the primary cause of cancer-related deaths and remains incurable. Current clinical methods for predicting metastatic recurrence are not sensitive enough to detect individual cancer cells in the body; therefore, current efforts are directed toward liquid biopsy-based assays to capture circulating and disseminated tumor cells (CTCs and DTCs) in the blood and bone marrow, respectively. The most promising strategy is fluorescence-based immunostaining using cancer cell-specific markers. However, despite recent efforts to develop robust processing and staining platforms, results from these platforms have been discordant among groups, particularly for DTC detection. While the choice of cancer cell-specific markers is a large factor in this discordance, we have found that marker-independent factors causing false signal are just as critical to consider. Bone marrow is particularly challenging to analyze by immunostaining because endogenous immune cell properties and bone marrow matrix components typically generate false staining. For immunostaining of whole tumor tissue containing ample cancer cells, this background staining can be overcome. Application of fluorescent-based staining for rare cells, however, is easily jeopardized by immune cells and autofluorescence that lead to false signal. We have specifically found two types of background staining in bone marrow samples: autofluorescence of the tissue and non-specific binding of secondary antibodies. We systematically optimized a basic immunofluorescence protocol to eliminate this background using cancer cells spiked into human bone marrow. This enhanced the specificity of automated scanning detection software. Our optimized protocol also outperformed a commercial rare cell detection protocol in detecting candidate DTCs from metastatic patient bone marrow. Robust optimization to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of immunofluorescent staining of bone marrow is required in order to achieve the necessary sensitivity and specificity for rare cell detection. Background immunofluorescent staining in bone marrow causes uncertainty and inconsistency among investigators, which can be overcome by systematically addressing each contributing source. Our optimized assay eliminates sources of background signal, and is adaptable to automated staining platforms for high throughput analysis.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1186/s12575-018-0078-5

Angiogenesis
2018

Improved recovery from limb ischaemia by delivery of an affinity-isolated heparan sulphate.

Poon, Selina, Lu, Xiaohua, Smith, Raymond A A, Ho, Pei, Bhakoo, Kishore, Nurcombe, Victor, Cool, Simon M

Peripheral arterial disease is a major cause of limb loss and its prevalence is increasing worldwide. As most standard-of-care therapies yield only unsatisfactory outcomes, more options are needed. Recent cell- and molecular-based therapies that have aimed to modulate vascular endothelial growth factor-165 (VEGF ) levels have not yet been approved for clinical use due to their uncertain side effects. We have previously reported a heparan sulphate (termed HS7) tuned to avidly bind VEGF . Here, we investigated the ability of HS7 to promote vascular recovery in a murine hindlimb vascular ischaemia model. HS7 stabilised VEGF against thermal and enzyme degradation in vitro, and isolated VEGF from serum via affinity-chromatography. C57BL6 mice subjected to unilateral hindlimb ischaemia injury received daily intramuscular injections of respective treatments (n = 8) and were assessed over 3 weeks by laser Doppler perfusion, magnetic resonance angiography, histology and the regain of function. Mice receiving HS7 showed improved blood reperfusion in the footpad by day 7. In addition, they recovered hindlimb blood volume two- to fourfold faster compared to the saline group; the greatest rate of recovery was observed in the first week. Notably, 17% of HS7-treated animals recovered full hindlimb function by day 7, a number that grew to 58% and 100% by days 14 and 21, respectively. This was in contrast to only 38% in the control animals. These results highlight the potential of purified glycosaminoglycan fractions for clinical use following vascular insult, and confirm the importance of harnessing the activity of endogenous pro-healing factors generated at injury sites.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1007/s10456-018-9622-9

Journal of neurotrauma, 35, 671--680
2018

Erythropoietin Attenuates the Brain Edema Response after Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury.

Blixt, Jonas, Gunnarson, Eli, Wanecek, Michael

Erythropoietin (EPO) has neuroprotective effects in multiple central nervous system (CNS) injury models; however EPO's effects on traumatic brain edema are elusive. To explore EPO as an intervention in traumatic brain edema, male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were subjected to blunt, controlled traumatic brain injury (TBI). Animals were randomized to EPO 5000 IU/kg or saline (control group) intraperitoneally within 30 min after trauma and once daily for 4 consecutive days. Brain MRI, immunohistofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, and quantitative protein analysis were performed at days 1 and 4 post- trauma. EPO significantly prevented the loss of the tight junction protein zona occludens 1 (ZO-1) observed in control animals after trauma. The decrease of ZO-1 in the control group was associated with an immunoglobulin (Ig)G increase in the perilesional parenchyma, indicating blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction and increased permeability. EPO treatment attenuated decrease in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) after trauma, suggesting a reduction of cytotoxic edema, and reduced the IgG leakage, indicating that EPO contributed to preserve BBB integrity and attenuated vasogenic edema. Animals treated with EPO demonstrated conserved levels of aquaporin 4 (AQP4) protein expression in the perilesional area, whereas control animals showed a reduction of AQP4. We show that post TBI administration of EPO decreases early cytotoxic brain edema and preserves structural and functional properties of the BBB, leading to attenuation of the vasogenic edema response. The data support that the mechanisms involve preservation of the tight junction protein ZO-1 and the water channel AQP4, and indicate that treatment with EPO may have beneficial effects on the brain edema response following TBI.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1089/neu.2017.5015

Postgraduate medical journal, 94, 398--403
2018

Adenotonsillar microbiome: an update.

Johnston, James Jordan, Douglas, Richard

Pathogenic bacteria associated with the adenoids and tonsils cause much morbidity in the paediatric population. Hyperplasia of the adenoids is associated with otitis media with effusion and hyperplasia of the palatine tonsils is associated with both recurrent tonsillitis and obstructive sleep apnoea. Most current knowledge of the microbiology of the upper airways has been derived from culture-based studies, which usually reflect only a small fraction of the bacteria present on the mucosal surface. Culture-independent molecular surveys based on 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing are now being employed to determine the microbiota on the surface and within the tissue of adenoids and palatine tonsils. This review describes the new techniques applied in determining the microbiome and summarises the results of studies employing these techniques.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1136/postgradmedj-2018-135602

Scientific reports, 8, 1032
2018

The ten-year evolutionary trajectory of a highly recurrent paediatric high grade neuroepithelial tumour with MN1:BEND2 fusion.

Burford, Anna, Mackay, Alan, Popov, Sergey, Vinci, Maria, Carvalho, Diana, Clarke, Matthew, Izquierdo, Elisa, Avery, Aimee, Jacques, Thomas S, Ingram, Wendy J, Moore, Andrew S, Frawley, Kieran, Hassall, Timothy E, Robertson, Thomas, Jones, Chris

Astroblastomas are rare brain tumours which predominate in children and young adults, and have a controversial claim as a distinct entity, with no established WHO grade. Reports suggest a better outcome than high grade gliomas, though they frequently recur. Recently, they have been described to overlap with a newly-discovered group of tumours described as'high grade neuroepithelial tumour with MN1 alteration' (CNS HGNET-MN1), defined by global methylation patterns and strongly associated with gene fusions targeting MN1. We have studied a unique case of astroblastoma arising in a 6 year-old girl, with multiple recurrences over a period of 10 years, with the pathognomonic MN1:BEND2 fusion. Exome sequencing allowed for a phylogenetic reconstruction of tumour evolution, which when integrated with clinical, pathological and radiological data provide for a detailed understanding of disease progression, with initial treatment driving tumour dissemination along four distinct trajectories. Infiltration of distant sites was associated with a later genome doubling, whilst there was evidence of convergent evolution of different lesions acquiring distinct alterations targeting NF-κB. These data represent an unusual opportunity to understand the evolutionary history of a highly recurrent childhood brain tumour, and provide novel therapeutic targets for astroblastoma/CNS HGNET-MN1.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1038/s41598-018-19389-9

Pathology, research and practice, 214, 318--324
2018

Osteosarcoma arising in fibrous dysplasia, confirmed by mutational analysis of GNAS gene.

Sugiura, Yoshiya, Kanda, Hiroaki, Motoi, Noriko, Nomura, Kimie, Inamura, Kentaro, Okada, Erina, Matsumoto, Haruna, Shimoji, Takashi, Matsumoto, Seiichi, Nakayama, Jun, Takazawa, Yutaka, Ishikawa, Yuichi, Machinami, Rikuo

Malignancy arising in fibrous dysplasia (FD) is rare. Approximately 100 cases have been reported so far, and osteosarcoma is the most common malignancy. We report a case of osteosarcoma in a 33-year-old Japanese man with monostotic FD of the right proximal femur from the age of 16 years. Histologically, relatively well-differentiated osteosarcoma was found in the FD lesion. Immunohistochemically, the FD was negative for p53 or MDM2, and the MIB-1 index was less than 1%, whereas the osteosarcoma was positive for both p53 and MDM2, and the MIB-1 index was up to 15%. The FD and osteosarcoma were negative for CDK4. Fluorescent in situ hybridization assay showed no amplification of the MDM2 gene, indicating that the osteosarcoma was a conventional osteosarcoma, not an intraosseous well-differentiated type. The original cell of malignancy in FD is unclear. Malignancy can be potentially derived from dysplastic cells in the area of the FD or cells in the adjacent normal tissues. GNAS gene mutation has recently been reported for fibrous dysplasia and the mutation is highly specific to fibrous dysplasia among fibro-osseous lesions including osteosarcoma. In this case, point mutations of GNAS were found in the FD and osteosarcoma but not in the adjacent normal tissues, suggesting that osteosarcoma was derived from the spindle cells of FD. This is the first report to clearly show that osteosarcoma is derived from the spindle cells in fibrous dysplasia (FD).

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1016/j.prp.2017.10.018

Nature communications, 9, 1048
2018

Integrative genomic profiling of large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas reveals distinct subtypes of high-grade neuroendocrine lung tumors.

George, Julie, Walter, Vonn, Peifer, Martin, Alexandrov, Ludmil B, Seidel, Danila, Leenders, Frauke, Maas, Lukas, Müller, Christian, Dahmen, Ilona, Delhomme, Tiffany M, Ardin, Maude, Leblay, Noemie, Byrnes, Graham, Sun, Ruping, De Reynies, Aurélien, McLeer-Florin, Anne, Bosco, Graziella, Malchers, Florian, Menon, Roopika, Altmüller, Janine, Becker, Christian, Nürnberg, Peter, Achter, Viktor, Lang, Ulrich, Schneider, Peter M, Bogus, Magdalena, Soloway, Matthew G, Wilkerson, Matthew D, Cun, Yupeng, McKay, James D, Moro-Sibilot, Denis, Brambilla, Christian G, Lantuejoul, Sylvie, Lemaitre, Nicolas, Soltermann, Alex, Weder, Walter, Tischler, Verena, Brustugun, Odd Terje, Lund-Iversen, Marius, Helland, Åslaug, Solberg, Steinar, Ansén, Sascha, Wright, Gavin, Solomon, Benjamin, Roz, Luca, Pastorino, Ugo, Petersen, Iver, Clement, Joachim H, Sänger, Jörg, Wolf, Jürgen, Vingron, Martin, Zander, Thomas, Perner, Sven, Travis, William D, Haas, Stefan A, Olivier, Magali, Foll, Matthieu, Büttner, Reinhard, Hayes, David Neil, Brambilla, Elisabeth, Fernandez-Cuesta, Lynnette, Thomas, Roman K

Pulmonary large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (LCNECs) have similarities with other lung cancers, but their precise relationship has remained unclear. Here we perform a comprehensive genomic (n = 60) and transcriptomic (n = 69) analysis of 75 LCNECs and identify two molecular subgroups: "type I LCNECs" with bi-allelic TP53 and STK11/KEAP1 alterations (37%), and "type II LCNECs" enriched for bi-allelic inactivation of TP53 and RB1 (42%). Despite sharing genomic alterations with adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas, no transcriptional relationship was found; instead LCNECs form distinct transcriptional subgroups with closest similarity to SCLC. While type I LCNECs and SCLCs exhibit a neuroendocrine profile with ASCL1 /DLL3 /NOTCH , type II LCNECs bear TP53 and RB1 alterations and differ from most SCLC tumors with reduced neuroendocrine markers, a pattern of ASCL1 /DLL3 /NOTCH , and an upregulation of immune-related pathways. In conclusion, LCNECs comprise two molecularly defined subgroups, and distinguishing them from SCLC may allow stratified targeted treatment of high-grade neuroendocrine lung tumors.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1038/s41467-018-03099-x

The American journal of surgical pathology, 42, 656--664
2018

Clarifying the Distinction Between Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor and Dedifferentiated Liposarcoma: A Critical Reappraisal of the Diagnostic Utility of MDM2 and H3K27me3 Status.

Makise, Naohiro, Sekimizu, Masaya, Kubo, Takashi, Wakai, Susumu, Hiraoka, Nobuyoshi, Komiyama, Motokiyo, Fukayama, Masashi, Kawai, Akira, Ichikawa, Hitoshi, Yoshida, Akihiko

Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) and dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLPS) are 2 major types of pleomorphic spindle cell sarcoma. The differentiation of MPNST and DDLPS by histomorphology alone can be problematic. Although MDM2 amplification and PRC2 alteration leading to H3K27me3 deficiency are genetic hallmarks of DDLPS and MPNST, respectively, a small number of MDM2-amplified MPNSTs and H3K27me3-deficient DDLPSs have been reported in the literature. We systematically compared MDM2 and H3K27me3 status in 68 MPNSTs and 47 DDLPSs. Of the 62 MPNSTs, 22 were immunopositive for MDM2, mostly in a weak and/or focal manner. Of the 21 MDM2-positive MPNSTs successfully tested by fluorescence in situ hybridization, high-level MDM2 amplification was observed in 1 case. In contrast, MDM2 staining and high-level MDM2 amplification were positive in all the DDLPS tested (28/28 and 20/20). Of the 68 MPNSTs, 42 cases (62%) exhibited complete loss of H3K27me3. All the 13 MPNSTs that showed heterologous differentiation were deficient in H3K27me3. Of the 47 DDLPSs, 3 cases (6%) had complete loss of H3K27me3, all of which exhibited heterologous differentiation. One case of H3K27me3-deficient DDLPS exhibited homozygous loss of EED according to targeted next-generation sequencing, whereas there were no alterations in NF1 and CDKN2A. In conclusion, high-level MDM2 amplification strongly suggests DDLPS over MPNST. Although a good marker for MPNST, H3K27me3 deficiency also uncommonly occurs in DDLPS in association with PRC2 mutational inactivation. Because both markers are imperfectly specific, rare sarcomas with dual features could be encountered, and their classification should integrate other parameters.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1097/PAS.0000000000001014

PloS one, 12, e0178877
2017

Depletion of ATP and glucose in advanced human atherosclerotic plaques.

Ekstrand, Matias, Widell, Emma, Hammar, Anna, Akyürek, Levent M, Johansson, Martin, Fagerberg, Björn, Bergström, Göran, Levin, Malin C, Fogelstrand, Per, Borén, Jan, Levin, Max

Severe hypoxia develops close to the necrotic core of advanced human atherosclerotic plaques, but the energy metabolic consequences of this hypoxia are not known. In animal models, plaque hypoxia is also associated with depletion of glucose and ATP. ATP depletion may impair healing of plaques and promote necrotic core expansion. To investigate if ATP depletion is present in human plaques, we analyzed the distribution of energy metabolites (ATP, glucose, glycogen and lactate) in intermediate and advanced human plaques. Snap frozen carotid endarterectomies from 6 symptomatic patients were analyzed. Each endarterectomy included a large plaque ranging from the common carotid artery (CCA) to the internal carotid artery (ICA). ATP, glucose, and glycogen concentrations were lower in advanced (ICA) compared to intermediate plaques (CCA), whereas lactate concentrations were higher. The lowest concentrations of ATP, glucose and glycogen were detected in the perinecrotic zone of advanced plaques. Our study demonstrates severe ATP depletion and glucose deficiency in the perinecrotic zone of human advanced atherosclerotic plaques. ATP depletion may impair healing of plaques and promote disease progression.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1371/journal.pone.0178877