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Scientific Reports, 8(1), 1141
2018

First experimental proof of Proton Boron Capture Therapy (PBCT) to enhance protontherapy effectiveness

Cirrone, GAP, Manti, L, Margarone, D, Petringa, G, Giuffrida, L, Minopoli, A, Picciotto, A, Russo, G, Cammarata, F, Pisciotta, P, others

Protontherapy is hadrontherapy’s fastest-growing modality and a pillar in the battle against cancer. Hadrontherapy’s superiority lies in its inverted depth-dose profile, hence tumour-confined irradiation. Protons, however, lack distinct radiobiological advantages over photons or electrons. Higher LET (Linear Energy Transfer) 12C-ions can overcome cancer radioresistance: DNA lesion complexity increases with LET, resulting in efficient cell killing, i.e. higher Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE). However, economic and radiobiological issues hamper 12C-ion clinical amenability. Thus, enhancing proton RBE is desirable. To this end, we exploited the p + 11B → 3α reaction to generate high-LET alpha particles with a clinical proton beam. To maximize the reaction rate, we used sodium borocaptate (BSH) with natural boron content. Boron-Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) uses 10B-enriched BSH for neutron irradiation-triggered alpha particles. We recorded significantly increased cellular lethality and chromosome aberration complexity. A strategy combining protontherapy’s ballistic precision with the higher RBE promised by BNCT and 12C-ion therapy is thus demonstrated.

Cancer genomics & proteomics, 15, 91--114
2018

Characterization of Camptothecin-induced Genomic Changes in the Camptothecin-resistant T-ALL-derived Cell Line CPT-K5.

Kjeldsen, Eigil, Nielsen, Christine J F, Roy, Amit, Tesauro, Cinzia, Jakobsen, Ann-Katrine, Stougaard, Magnus, Knudsen, Birgitta R

Acquisition of resistance to topoisomerase I (TOP1)-targeting camptothecin (CPT) derivatives is a major clinical problem. Little is known about the underlying chromosomal and genomic mechanisms. We characterized the CPT-K5 cell line expressing mutant CPT-resistant TOP1 and its parental T-cell derived acute lymphoblastic leukemia CPT-sensitive RPMI-8402 cell line by karyotyping and molecular genetic methods, including subtractive oligo-based array comparative genomic hybridization (soaCGH) analysis. Karyotyping revealed that CPT-K5 cells had acquired additional structural aberrations and a reduced modal chromosomal number compared to RPMI-8402. soaCGH analysis identified vast copy number alterations and >200 unbalanced DNA breakpoints distributed unevenly across the chromosomal complement in CPT-K5. In addition, the short tandem repeat alleles were found to be highly different between CPT-K5 and its parental cell line. We identified copy number alterations affecting genes important for maintaining genome integrity and reducing CPT-induced DNA damage. We show for the first time that short tandem repeats are targets for TOP1 cleavage, that can be differentially stimulated by CPT.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.21873/cgp.20068

International journal of radiation biology, 94, 664--670
2018

Evaluation of chromosomal aberrations induced by , [email protected], Re-dendrimer nanosystem on B16f1 melanoma cells.

Tassano, Marcos, Oddone, Natalia, Fernández, Marcelo, Porcal, Williams, García, María Fernanda, Martínez-López, Wilner, Benech, Juan Claudio, Cabral, Pablo

To study the rhenium-188 labeling of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) generation 4 (G4) dendrimer and its evaluation on biodistribution and chromosomal aberrations in melanoma cells induced by ionizing radiation as potential treatment agent. Dendrimers were first conjugated with Suc-HYNIC (succinimidyl 6-hydrazinopyridine-3-carboxylic acid hydrochloride). Dendrimer-HYNIC was then incubated with ReO . Biodistribution was performed administrating Re-dendrimer to normal (NM) or melanoma-bearing mice (MBM). Chromosome aberration test was conducted in order to measure treatment capacity of Re-dendrimer in melanoma cells. Radiolabeling yield of dendrimer was approx. 70%. Biodistribution studies in NM showed blood clearance with hepatic and renal depuration. MBM showed a similar pattern of biodistribution with tumor uptake of 6% of injected dose. Aberrant metaphases quantified in control cells were 7%, increasing to 29.5% in cells treated with 15μCi (0.555 MBq) of Re-dendrimer for 24 h. Re-dendrimer can produce double-stranded breaks in DNA induced by ionizing radiation in melanoma cells in vitro.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1080/09553002.2018.1478161

International journal of radiation biology, 93, 48--57
2017

Dose assessment intercomparisons within the RENEB network using G0-lymphocyte prematurely condensed chromosomes (PCC assay).

Terzoudi, Georgia I, Pantelias, Gabriel, Darroudi, Firouz, Barszczewska, Katarzyna, Buraczewska, Iwona, Depuydt, Julie, Georgieva, Dimka, Hadjidekova, Valeria, Hatzi, Vasiliki I, Karachristou, Ioanna, Karakosta, Maria, Meschini, Roberta, M'Kacher, Radhia, Montoro, Alegria, Palitti, Fabrizio, Pantelias, Antonio, Pepe, Gaetano, Ricoul, Michelle, Sabatier, Laure, Sebastià, Natividad, Sommer, Sylwester, Vral, Anne, Zafiropoulos, Demetre, Wojcik, Andrzej

Dose assessment intercomparisons within the RENEB network were performed for triage biodosimetry analyzing G0-lymphocyte PCC for harmonization, standardization and optimization of the PCC assay. Comparative analysis among different partners for dose assessment included shipment of PCC-slides and captured images to construct dose-response curves for up to 6 Gy γ-rays. Accident simulation exercises were performed to assess the suitability of the PCC assay by detecting speed of analysis and minimum number of cells required for categorization of potentially exposed individuals. Calibration data based on Giemsa-stained fragments in excess of 46 PCC were obtained by different partners using galleries of PCC images for each dose-point. Mean values derived from all scores yielded a linear dose-response with approximately 4 excess-fragments/cell/Gy. To unify scoring criteria, exercises were carried out using coded PCC-slides and/or coded irradiated blood samples. Analysis of samples received 24 h post-exposure was successfully performed using Giemsa staining (1 excess-fragment/cell/Gy) or centromere/telomere FISH-staining for dicentrics. Dose assessments by RENEB partners using appropriate calibration curves were mostly in good agreement. The PCC assay is quick and reliable for whole- or partial-body triage biodosimetry by scoring excess-fragments or dicentrics in G0-lymphocytes. Particularly, analysis of Giemsa-stained excess PCC-fragments is simple, inexpensive and its automation could increase throughput and scoring objectivity of the PCC assay.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1080/09553002.2016.1234725

Oncotarget, 8, 26269--26280
2017

Opposite effects of GCN5 and PCAF knockdowns on the alternative mechanism of telomere maintenance.

Jeitany, Maya, Bakhos-Douaihy, Dalal, Silvestre, David C, Pineda, Jose R, Ugolin, Nicolas, Moussa, Angela, Gauthier, Laurent R, Busso, Didier, Junier, Marie-Pierre, Chneiweiss, Hervé, Chevillard, Sylvie, Desmaze, Chantal, Boussin, François D

Cancer cells can use a telomerase-independent mechanism, known as alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT), to elongate their telomeres. General control non-derepressible 5 (GCN5) and P300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF) are two homologous acetyltransferases that are mutually exclusive subunits in SAGA-like complexes. Here, we reveal that down regulation of GCN5 and PCAF had differential effects on some phenotypic characteristics of ALT cells. Our results suggest that GCN5 is present at telomeres and opposes telomere recombination, in contrast to PCAF that may indirectly favour them in ALT cells.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.18632/oncotarget.15447

Nucleic Acids Res
June, 2016

Chromosome thripsis by DNA double strand break clusters causes enhanced cell lethality, chromosomal translocations and 53BP1-recruitment.

Schipler, Agnes, Mladenova, Veronika, Soni, Aashish, Nikolov, Vladimir, Saha, Janapriya, Mladenov, Emil, Iliakis, George

Chromosome translocations are hallmark of cancer and of radiation-induced cell killing, reflecting joining of incongruent DNA-ends that alter the genome. Translocation-formation requires DNA end-joining mechanisms and incompletely characterized, permissive chromatin conditions. We show that chromatin destabilization by clusters of DNA double-strand-breaks (DSBs) generated by the I-SceI meganuclease at multiple, appropriately engineered genomic sites, compromises c-NHEJ and markedly increases cell killing and translocation-formation compared to single-DSBs. Translocation-formation from DSB-clusters utilizes Parp1 activity, implicating alt-EJ in their formation. Immunofluorescence experiments show that single-DSBs and DSB-clusters uniformly provoke the formation of single γ-H2AX foci, suggesting similar activation of early DNA damage response (DDR). Live-cell imaging also shows similar single-focus recruitment of the early-response protein MDC1, to single-DSBs and DSB-clusters. Notably, the late DDR protein, 53BP1 shows in live-cell imaging strikingly stronger recruitment to DSB-clusters as compared to single-DSBs. This is the first report that chromatin thripsis, in the form of engineered DSB-clusters, compromises first-line DSB-repair pathways, allowing alt-EJ to function as rescuing-backup. DSB-cluster-formation is indirectly linked to the increased biological effectiveness of high ionization-density radiations, such as the alpha-particles emitted by radon gas or the heavy-ions utilized in cancer therapy. Our observations provide the first direct mechanistic explanation for this long-known effect.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1093/nar/gkw487

J Radiat Res, 57(3), 220–226
June, 2016

Analysis of chromosome translocation frequency after a single CT scan in adults.

Abe, Yu, Miura, Tomisato, Yoshida, Mitsuaki A., Ujiie, Risa, Kurosu, Yumiko, Kato, Nagisa, Katafuchi, Atsushi, Tsuyama, Naohiro, Kawamura, Fumihiko, Ohba, Takashi, Inamasu, Tomoko, Shishido, Fumio, Noji, Hideyoshi, Ogawa, Kazuei, Yokouchi, Hiroshi, Kanazawa, Kenya, Ishida, Takashi, Muto, Satoshi, Ohsugi, Jun, Suzuki, Hiroyuki, Ishikawa, Tetsuo, Kamiya, Kenji, Sakai, Akira

We recently reported an increase in dicentric chromosome (DIC) formation after a single computed tomography (CT) scan (5.78-60.27 mSv: mean 24.24 mSv) and we recommended analysis of 2000 metaphase cells stained with Giemsa and centromere-FISH for dicentric chromosome assay (DCA) in cases of low-dose radiation exposure. In the present study, we analyzed the frequency of chromosome translocations using stored Carnoy's-fixed lymphocyte specimens from the previous study; these specimens were from 12 patients who were subject to chromosome painting of Chromosomes 1, 2 and 4. Chromosomes 1, 2 and 4 were analyzed in ∼5000 cells, which is equivalent to the whole-genome analysis of almost 2000 cells. The frequency of chromosome translocation was higher than the number of DICs formed, both before and after CT scanning. The frequency of chromosome translocations tended to be higher, but not significantly higher, in patients with a treatment history compared with patients without such a history. However, in contrast to the results for DIC formation, the frequency of translocations detected before and after the CT scan did not differ significantly. Therefore, analysis of chromosome translocation may not be a suitable assay for detecting chromosome aberrations in cases of low-dose radiation exposure from a CT scan. A significant increase in the frequency of chromosome translocations was not likely to be detected due to the high baseline before the CT scan; the high and variable frequency of translocations was probably due to multiple confounding factors in adults.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1093/jrr/rrv090

Atom Indonesia, 42(2), 71-77
2016

Comparison of Radiosensitivity of Human Chromosomes 1, 2 and 4 from One Healthy Donor

Ramadhani, Purnami, Yoshida

In general, it was assumed that the chromosome aberration induced by ionizing radiation is proportional to the chromosome size. From this viewpoint, the higher chromosome size, the more resistant to radiation. However, different opinions, in which chromosomes are particularly sensitive or resistant to radiation, are also still followed until now. Here in this research, we compared the chromosome sensitivity between chromosomes number 1, 2, and 4 using the FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) technique. From this research, we expect that the information obtained could show clearly whether a longer chromosome is more frequently involved in translocations and also more resistant to radiation than a shorter one. The type of chromosome aberration considered was limited only to translocation and we used one sample donor in order to avoid donor variability. The whole blood from a healthy female was irradiated with γ-rays with doses of 1, 3 and 5 Gy, respectively. Isolated lymphocytes from the whole blood were then cultured for 48 hours. After the culture process was completed, preparations of harvest and metaphase chromosomes were carried out. Chromosomes 1, 2, and 4 were stained with different fluorochromes. The translocation of each chromosome at each dose point was subsequently evaluated from 50 images obtained from an automated metaphase finder and capturing system. An additional analysis was performed to identify which chromosome arm was more frequently involved in translocation. Further analyses were also conducted with the aim of determining which chromosome band had a higher frequency of radiation-induced breakage. The experimental results showed that chromosome number 4 was more frequently involved in translocations compared to chromosomes 1 and 2 at 5 Gy. In contrast, at doses of 1 and 3 Gy translocations involving chromosomes number 1 and 2 were more numerous compared to the ones involving chromosome 4. However, if the number of translocation was accumulated for all the doses applied, the chromosome number 4 was the chromosome most frequently involved in translocations. Breakpoint analysis revealed that in chromosome 1, chromosome 2, and chromosome 4, the highest chromosome bands as break position were in band q32, p13, and q21, respectively. It can be concluded that chromosome 4 is more sensitive to radiation in all doses point, despite having less DNA content than chromosomes 1 and 2. Thus, it was showed that our research cannot support the general assumption about chromosome aberration induced by radiation being proportional to DNA content.

Sci Rep, 6, 32510
2016

Replication Timing of Human Telomeres is Conserved during Immortalization and Influenced by Respective Subtelomeres.

Piqueret-Stephan, Laure, Ricoul, Michelle, Hempel, William M., Sabatier, Laure

Telomeres are specific structures that protect chromosome ends and act as a biological clock, preventing normal cells from replicating indefinitely. Mammalian telomeres are replicated throughout S-phase in a predetermined order. However, the mechanism of this regulation is still unknown. We wished to investigate this phenomenon under physiological conditions in a changing environment, such as the immortalization process to better understand the mechanism for its control. We thus examined the timing of human telomere replication in normal and SV40 immortalized cells, which are cytogenetically very similar to cancer cells. We found that the timing of telomere replication was globally conserved under different conditions during the immortalization process. The timing of telomere replication was conserved despite changes in telomere length due to endogenous telomerase reactivation, in duplicated homologous chromosomes, and in rearranged chromosomes. Importantly, translocated telomeres, possessing their initial subtelomere, retained the replication timing of their homolog, independently of the proportion of the translocated arm, even when the remaining flanking DNA is restricted to its subtelomere, the closest chromosome-specific sequences (inferior to 500 kb). Our observations support the notion that subtelomere regions strongly influence the replication timing of the associated telomere.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1038/srep32510

Genet Sel Evol, 48, 12
2016

The second highest chromosome count among vertebrates is observed in cultured sturgeon and is associated with genome plasticity.

Havelka, Milo\vs, Bytyutskyy, Dmytro, Symonová, Radka, Ráb, Petr, Flaj\vshans, Martin

One of the five basal actinopterygian lineages, the Chondrostei, including sturgeon, shovelnose, and paddlefish (Order Acipenseriformes) show extraordinary ploidy diversity associated with three rounds of lineage-specific whole-genome duplication, resulting in three levels of ploidy in sturgeon. Recently, incidence of spontaneous polyploidization has been reported among cultured sturgeon and it could have serious negative implications for the economics of sturgeon farming. We report the occurrence of seven spontaneous heptaploid (7n) Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii, which is a functional tetraploid species (4n) with ~245 chromosomes. Our aims were to assess ploidy level and chromosome number of the analysed specimens and to identify the possible mechanism that underlies the occurrence of spontaneous additional chromosome sets in their genome.Among 150 specimens resulting from the mating of a tetraploid (4n) A. baerii (~245 chromosomes) dam with a hexaploid (6n) A. baerii (~368 chromosomes) sire, 143 displayed a relative DNA content that corresponds to pentaploidy (5n) with an absolute DNA content of 8.98 ± 0.03 pg DNA per nucleus and nuclear area of 35.3 ± 4.3 μm(2) and seven specimens exhibited a relative DNA content that corresponds to heptaploidy (7n), with an absolute DNA content of 15.02 ± 0.04 pg DNA per nucleus and nuclear area of 48.4 ± 5.1 μm(2). Chromosome analyses confirmed a modal number of ~437 chromosomes in these heptaploid (7n) individuals. DNA genotyping of eight microsatellite loci followed by parental assignment confirmed spontaneous duplication of the maternal chromosome sets via retention of the second polar body in meiosis II as the mechanism for the formation of this unusual chromosome number and ploidy level in a functional tetraploid A. baerii.We report the second highest chromosome count among vertebrates in cultured sturgeon (~437) after the schizothoracine cyprinid Ptychobarbus dipogon with ~446 chromosomes. The finding also represents the highest documented chromosome count in Acipenseriformes, and the first report of a functional heptaploid (7n) genome composition in sturgeon. To our knowledge, this study provides the first clear evidence of a maternal origin for spontaneous polyploidization in cultured A. baerii. To date, all available data indicate that spontaneous polyploidization occurs frequently among cultured sturgeons.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1186/s12711-016-0194-0

Journal of applied toxicology : JAT
2016

Genotoxic risk of ethyl-paraben could be related to telomere shortening.

Finot, F, Kaddour, A, Morat, L, Mouche, I, Zaguia, N, Cuceu, C, Souverville, D, Négrault, S, Cariou, O, Essahli, A, Prigent, N, Saul, J, Paillard, F, Heidingsfelder, L, Lafouge, P, Al Jawhari, M, Hempel, W M, El May, M, Colicchio, B, Dieterlen, A, Jeandidier, E, Sabatier, L, Clements, J, M'Kacher, R

The ability of parabens to promote the appearance of multiple cancer hallmarks in breast epithelium cells provides grounds for regulatory review of the implication of the presence of parabens in human breast tissue. It is well documented that telomere dysfunction plays a significant role in the initiation of genomic instability during carcinogenesis in human breast cancer. In the present study, we evaluated the genotoxic effect of ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (ethyl-paraben), with and without metabolic activation (S9), in studies following OECD guidelines. We observed a significant increase in genotoxic damage using the Mouse Lymphoma Assay and in vitro micronucleus (MN) tests in the L5178Y cell line in the presence of S9 only after a short exposure. A high frequency of MN was observed in the TK6 cells after a short exposure (3 h) in the presence of S9 and a long exposure (26 h) without S9. We found significant increases in the MN frequency and induced chromosomal aberrations in the lymphocytes of only one donor after ethyl-paraben exposure in the presence of S9 after a short exposure. Cytogenetic characterization of the paraben-treated cells demonstrated telomere shortening associated with telomere loss and telomere deletions in L5178Y and TK6 cells and lymphocytes of the paraben sensitive-donor. In a control cohort of 68 human lymphocytes, telomere length and telomere aberrations were age-dependent and showed high inter-individual variation. This study is the first to link telomere shortening and the genotoxic effect of ethyl paraben in the presence of S9 and raises the possibility that telomere shortening may be a proxy for underlying inter-individual sensitivity to ethyl-paraben. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1002/jat.3425

J Radiat Res
April, 2014

Biodosimetry estimation using the ratio of the longest:shortest lengthin the premature chromosome condensation (PCC) method applying autocaptureand automatic image analysis.

Jorge E. Gonz{\'a}lez, Ivonne Romero, Eric Gregoire, C{\'e}cile Martin, Ana I. Lamadrid, Philippe Voisin, Joan-Francesc Barquinero, Omar Garc{\'i}a

The combination of automatic image acquisition and automatic image analysis of premature chromosome condensation (PCC) spreads was tested as a rapid biodosimeter protocol. Human peripheral lymphocytes were irradiated with (60)Co gamma rays in a single dose of between 1 and 20 Gy, stimulated with phytohaemaglutinin and incubated for 48 h, division blocked with Colcemid, and PCC-induced by Calyculin A. Images of chromosome spreads were captured and analysed automatically by combining the Metafer 4 and CellProfiler platforms. Automatic measurement of chromosome lengths allows the calculation of the length ratio (LR) of the longest and the shortest piece that can be used for dose estimation since this ratio is correlated with ionizing radiation dose. The LR of the longest and the shortest chromosome pieces showed the best goodness-of-fit to a linear model in the dose interval tested. The application of the automatic analysis increases the potential use of the PCC method for triage in the event of massive radiation causalities.

blood, 1850-1859
2014

Telomerase functions beyond telomere maintenance in primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma

Edith Chevret, Laetitia Andrique, Martina Prochazkova-Carlotti, Jacky Ferrer, David Cappellen, Elodie Laharanne, Yamina Idrissi, Anna Boettiger, Wafa Sahraoui, Florian Ruiz, Anne Pham-Ledard, Beatrice Vergier, Francis Belloc, Pierre Dubus, Marie Beylot-Barry, Jean-Philippe Merlio

Telomere erosion may be counteracted by telomerase. Here we explored telomere length (TL) and telomerase activity (TA) in primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) by using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and interphase quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization assays. Samples from patients with S´ezary syndrome (SS), transformed mycosis fungoides (T-MF), and cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma were studied in parallel with corresponding cell lines to evaluate the relevance of TL and TA as target candidates for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Compared with controls, short telomeres were observed in aggressive CTCL subtypes such as SS and T-MF and were restricted to neoplastic cells in SS. While no genomic alteration of the hTERT (human telomerase catalytic subunit) locus was observed in patients’ tumor cells, TA was detected. To understand the role of telomerase in CTCL, we manipulated its expression in CTCL cell lines. Telomerase inhibition rapidly impeded in vitro cell proliferation and led to cell death, while telomerase overexpression stimulated in vitro proliferation and clonogenicity properties and favored tumor development in immunodeficient mice. Our data indicate that, besides maintenance of TL, telomerase exerts additional functions in CTCL. Therefore, targeting these functions might represent an attractive therapeutic strategy, especially in aggressive CTCL.

Cell Biol Toxicol, 29(4), 213--227
August, 2013

Genotoxicity of hydroquinone in A549 cells.

Cheng Peng, Dionne Arthur, Faye Liu, Jongwha Lee, Qing Xia, Martin F. Lavin, Jack C. Ng

Hydroquinone (HQ) is found in natural and anthropogenic sources including food, cosmetics, cigarette smoke, and industrial products. In addition to ingestion and dermal absorption, human exposure to HQ may also occur by inhaling cigarette smoke or polluted air. The adverse effects of HQ on respiratory systems have been studied, but genotoxicity HQ on human lung cells is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of HQ in human lung alveolar epithelial cells (A549). We found that HQ induced a dose response in cell growth inhibition and DNA damage which was associated with an increase in oxidative stress. Cytotoxicity results demonstrated that HQ was most toxic after 24 h (LC50 = 33 μM) and less toxic after 1 h exposure (LC50 = 59 μM). Genotoxicity of HQ was measured using the Comet assay, H2AX phosphorylation, and chromosome aberration formation. Results from the comet assay revealed that DNA damage was highest during the earlier hours of exposure (1 and 6 h) and thereafter was reduced. A similar pattern was observed for H2AX phosphorylation suggesting that damage DNA may be repaired in later exposure hours. An increase in chromosomal aberration corresponded with maximal DNA damage which further confirmed the genotoxic effects of HQ. To investigate whether oxidative stress was involved in the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of HQ, cellular glutathione and 8-Oxo-deoguanisone (8-Oxo-dG) formation were measured. A decrease in the reduced glutathione (GSH) and an increase oxidized glutathione (GSSG) was observed during the early hours of exposure which corresponded with elevated 8-Oxo-dG adducts. Together these results demonstrate that HQ exerts its cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in A549 lung cells, probably through DNA damage via oxidative stress.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1007/s10565-013-9247-0

Radiat Prot Dosimetry, epub, epub
August, 2012

INTERLABORATORY COMPARISON OF DICENTRIC CHROMOSOME ASSAY USING ELECTRONICALLYTRANSMITTED IMAGES.

O. Garc{\'i}a, M. {Di Giorgio}, M. B. Vallerga, A. Radl, M. R. Taja, A. Seoane, J. {De Luca}, M. {Stuck Oliveira}, P. Valdivia, A. I. Lamadrid, J. E. Gonz{\'a}lez, I. Romero, T. Mandina, G. Pantelias, G. Terzoudi, C. Guerrero-Carbajal, C. {Arceo Maldonado}, M. Espinoza, N. Oliveros, W. Mart{\'i}nez-L{\'o}pez, M. V. {Di Tomaso}, L. M{\'e}ndez-Acu{\~n}a, R. Puig, L. Roy, J. F. Barquinero

The bottleneck in data acquisition during biological dosimetry based on a dicentric assay is the need to score dicentrics in a large number of lymphocytes. One way to increase the capacity of a given laboratory is to use the ability of skilled operators from other laboratories. This can be done using image analysis systems and distributing images all around the world. Two exercises were conducted to test the efficiency of such an approach involving 10 laboratories. During the first exercise (E1), the participant laboratories analysed the same images derived from cells exposed to 0.5 and 3 Gy; 100 images were sent to all participants for both doses. Whatever the dose, only about half of the cells were complete with well-spread metaphases suitable for analysis. A coefficient of variation (CV) on the standard deviation of ?15 \% was obtained for both doses. The trueness was better for 3 Gy (0.6 \%) than for 0.5 Gy (37.8 \%). The number of estimated doses classified as satisfactory according to the z-score was 3 at 0.5 Gy and 8 at 3 Gy for 10 dose estimations. In the second exercise, an emergency situation was tested, each laboratory was required to score a different set of 50 images in 2 d extracted from 500 downloaded images derived from cells exposed to 0.5 Gy. Then the remaining 450 images had to be scored within a week. Using 50 different images, the CV on the estimated doses (79.2 \%) was not as good as in E1, probably associated to a lower number of cells analysed (50 vs. 100) or from the fact that laboratories analysed a different set of images. The trueness for the dose was better after scoring 500 cells (22.5 \%) than after 50 cells (26.8 \%). For the 10 dose estimations, the number of doses classified as satisfactory according to the z-score was 9, for both 50 and 500 cells. Overall, the results obtained support the feasibility of networking using electronically transmitted images. However, before its implementation some issues should be elucidated, such as the number and resolution of the images to be sent, and the harmonisation of the scoring criteria. Additionally, a global website able to be used for the different regional networks, like Share Points, will be desirable to facilitate worldwide communication.

Mutat Res, 751(2), 258--286
2012

Ionizing radiation biomarkers for potential use in epidemiologicalstudies.

Eileen Pernot, Janet Hall, Sarah Baatout, Mohammed Abderrafi Benotmane, Eric Blanchardon, Simon Bouffler, Houssein {El Saghire}, Maria Gomolka, Anne Guertler, Mats Harms-Ringdahl, Penny Jeggo, Michaela Kreuzer, Dominique Laurier, Carita Lindholm, Radhia Mkacher, Roel Quintens, Kai Rothkamm, Laure Sabatier, Soile Tapio, Florent {de Vathaire}, Elisabeth Cardis

Ionizing radiation is a known human carcinogen that can induce a variety of biological effects depending on the physical nature, duration, doses and dose-rates of exposure. However, the magnitude of health risks at low doses and dose-rates (below 100mSv and/or 0.1mSvmin(-1)) remains controversial due to a lack of direct human evidence. It is anticipated that significant insights will emerge from the integration of epidemiological and biological research, made possible by molecular epidemiology studies incorporating biomarkers and bioassays. A number of these have been used to investigate exposure, effects and susceptibility to ionizing radiation, albeit often at higher doses and dose rates, with each reflecting time-limited cellular or physiological alterations. This review summarises the multidisciplinary work undertaken in the framework of the European project DoReMi (Low Dose Research towards Multidisciplinary Integration) to identify the most appropriate biomarkers for use in population studies. In addition to logistical and ethical considerations for conducting large-scale epidemiological studies, we discuss the relevance of their use for assessing the effects of low dose ionizing radiation exposure at the cellular and physiological level. We also propose a temporal classification of biomarkers that may be relevant for molecular epidemiology studies which need to take into account the time elapsed since exposure. Finally, the integration of biology with epidemiology requires careful planning and enhanced discussions between the epidemiology, biology and dosimetry communities in order to determine the most important questions to be addressed in light of pragmatic considerations including the appropriate population to be investigated (occupationally, environmentally or medically exposed), and study design. The consideration of the logistics of biological sample collection, processing and storing and the choice of biomarker or bioassay, as well as awareness of potential confounding factors, are also essential.

Carcinogenesis, 32(4), 605--612
April, 2011

Chromosome-wide aneuploidy study (CWAS) in workers exposed to anestablished leukemogen, benzene.

Luoping Zhang, Qing Lan, Weihong Guo, Alan E. Hubbard, Guilan Li, Stephen M. Rappaport, Cliona M. McHale, Min Shen, Zhiying Ji, Roel Vermeulen, Songnian Yin, Nathaniel Rothman, Martyn T. Smith

Evidence suggests that de novo, therapy-related and benzene-induced acute myeloid leukemias (AML) occur via similar cytogenetic and genetic pathways, several of which involve aneuploidy, the loss or gain of chromosomes. Aneuploidy of specific chromosomes has been detected in benzene-related leukemia patients as well as in healthy benzene-exposed workers, suggesting that aneuploidy precedes and may be a potential mechanism underlying benzene-induced leukemia. Here, we analyzed the peripheral blood lymphocytes of 47 exposed workers and 27 unexposed controls using a novel OctoChrome fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique that simultaneously detects aneuploidy in all 24 chromosomes. Through this chromosome-wide aneuploidy study (CWAS) approach, we found heterogeneity in the monosomy and trisomy rates of the 22 autosomes when plotted against continuous benzene exposure. In addition, statistically significant, chromosome-specific increases in the rates of monosomy [5, 6, 7, 10, 16 and 19] and trisomy [5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 14, 16, 21 and 22] were found to be dose dependently associated with benzene exposure. Furthermore, significantly higher rates of monosomy and trisomy were observed in a priori defined 'susceptible' chromosome sets compared with all other chromosomes. Together, these findings confirm that benzene exposure is associated with specific chromosomal aneuploidies in hematopoietic cells, which suggests that such aneuploidies may play roles in benzene-induced leukemogenesis.

Blood, 117(15), e161--e170
April, 2011

Myelodysplasia and leukemia of Fanconi anemia are associated witha specific pattern of genomic abnormalities that includes crypticRUNX1/AML1 lesions.

Samuel Quentin, Wendy Cuccuini, Raphael Ceccaldi, Olivier Nibourel, Corinne Pondarre, Marie-Pierre Pag?s, Nadia Vasquez, Catherine {Dubois d'Enghien}, J{\'e}r{\^o}me Larghero, {Peffault de Latour}, R{\'e}gis, Vanderson Rocha, Jean-Hugues Dalle, Pascale Schneider, Mauricette Michallet, G{\'e}rard Michel, Andr{\'e} Baruchel, Fran{\c{c}}ois Sigaux, Eliane Gluckman, Thierry Leblanc, Dominique Stoppa-Lyonnet, Claude Preudhomme, G{\'e}rard Soci{\'e}, Jean Soulier

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetic condition associated with bone marrow (BM) failure, myelodysplasia (MDS), and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We studied 57 FA patients with hypoplastic or aplastic anemia (n = 20), MDS (n = 18), AML (n = 11), or no BM abnormality (n = 8). BM samples were analyzed by karyotype, high-density DNA arrays with respect to paired fibroblasts, and by selected oncogene sequencing. A specific pattern of chromosomal abnormalities was found in MDS/AML, which included 1q+ (44.8\%), 3q+ (41.4\%), -7/7q (17.2\%), and 11q- (13.8\%). Moreover, cryptic RUNX1/AML1 lesions (translocations, deletions, or mutations) were observed for the first time in FA (20.7\%). Rare mutations of NRAS, FLT3-ITD, MLL-PTD, ERG amplification, and ZFP36L2-PRDM16 translocation, but no TP53, TET2, CBL, NPM1, and CEBP? mutations were found. Frequent homozygosity regions were related not to somatic copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity but to consanguinity, suggesting that homologous recombination is not a common progression mechanism in FA. Importantly, the RUNX1 and other chromosomal/genomic lesions were found at the MDS/AML stages, except for 1q+, which was found at all stages. These data have implications for staging and therapeutic managing in FA patients, and also to analyze the mechanisms of clonal evolution and oncogenesis in a background of genomic instability and BM failure.

Mutat Res, 699(1-2), 29--34
June, 2010

Frequency of chromosomal aberrations in Prague mothers and theirnewborns.

A. Rossnerova, I. Balascak, P. Rossner, R. J. Sram

The capital city of Prague is one of the most polluted areas of the Czech Republic. The impact of air pollution on the level of chromosomal aberrations was systematically studied: analyses were performed using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with whole-chromosome painting for chromosomes #1 and #4. In the present study, we analyzed the levels of stable (one-way and two-way translocations) and unstable (acentric fragments) chromosomal aberrations in 42 mothers living in Prague and in their newborns. The average age of the mothers was 29 years (range, 20-40 years). Blood samples were collected from October 2007 to February 2008. The average levels of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (c-PAHs) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in respirable particles (PM2.5), as determined by stationary monitoring, were 21.0+/-12.3ng/m(3) and 2.9+/-1.8ng/m(3), respectively. We did not observe any effect of either c-PAH or B[a]P exposure on the genomic frequency of translocations (per 100 cells, F(G)/100) in either group due to their similar exposure during the winter months. The mean values of F(G)/100 representing stable aberrations were 0.09+/-0.13 vs 0.80+/-0.79 (p

Mol Biol Cell, 21(4), 511--520
February, 2010

Alzheimer Abeta peptide induces chromosome mis-segregation and aneuploidy,including trisomy 21: requirement for tau and APP.

Antoneta Granic, Jaya Padmanabhan, Michelle Norden, Huntington Potter

Both sporadic and familial Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients exhibit increased chromosome aneuploidy, particularly trisomy 21, in neurons and other cells. Significantly, trisomy 21/Down syndrome patients develop early onset AD pathology. We investigated the mechanism underlying mosaic chromosome aneuploidy in AD and report that FAD mutations in the Alzheimer Amyloid Precursor Protein gene, APP, induce chromosome mis-segregation and aneuploidy in transgenic mice and in transfected cells. Furthermore, adding synthetic Abeta peptide, the pathogenic product of APP, to cultured cells causes rapid and robust chromosome mis-segregation leading to aneuploid, including trisomy 21, daughters, which is prevented by LiCl addition or Ca(2+) chelation and is replicated in tau KO cells, implicating GSK-3beta, calpain, and Tau-dependent microtubule transport in the aneugenic activity of Abeta. Furthermore, APP KO cells are resistant to the aneugenic activity of Abeta, as they have been shown previously to be resistant to Abeta-induced tau phosphorylation and cell toxicity. These results indicate that Abeta-induced microtubule dysfunction leads to aneuploid neurons and may thereby contribute to the pathogenesis of AD.