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Int J Radiat Biol, 26, 1707- 1713

Are telomeres a specific target for mutagenic attack by cytostatics in neoplastic cells?

U. Wick, E. Gebhart

Damage to telomeres induced by cytostatic therapy theoretically could generate telomere shortening and, subsequently, induce an additional genomic instability in neoplastic cells. Model experiments were carried out to examine this hypothesis. Cells of the T-ALL derived cell line CCRF-CEM were exposed to various different concentrations of Bleomycin (BLM) or Mitomycin C (MMC) for various times. Telomere lengths of metaphase chromosomes of the exposed cells were compared with those without this exposure (controls). In addition, telomerase activity was determined with a TRAP assay under the given conditions using the BLM experiments as a model. Although slight changes of total telomere length could be found in single experiments, the differences between exposed and non-exposed cells were not significant. Also, a considerable telomerase activity was shown which, however, did not substantially differ between exposed and non-exposed cells. From these data it may be concluded that, at least in the examined cell line, telomeres are not a preferential target for this kind of mutagenic attack.

Int J Oncol, 24, 1279- 1288

Molecular characterizations of derivatives of HCT116 colorectal cancer cells that are resistant to the chemotherapeutic agent 5-fluorouracil.

P.M. De Angelis, B. Fjell, K.L. Kravik, T. Haug, S.H. Tunheim, W. Reichelt, M. Beigi, O.P. Clausen, E. Galteland, T. Stokke

5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is the chemotherapeutic drug of choice for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer, but resistance to 5-FU remains a major obstacle to successful therapy. We generated 5-FU-resistant derivatives of the HCT116 human colon cancer cell line by serial passage of these cells in the presence of increasing 5-FU concentrations in an attempt to elucidate the biological mechanisms involved in resistance to 5-FU. Two resultant resistant derivatives, HCT116 ResB and ResD, were characterized for resistance phenotypes, genotypes, and gene expression using cells maintained long-term in 5-FU-free media. Compared to parental HCT116 cells that respond to 5-FU challenge by inducing high levels of apoptosis, ResB and ResD derivatives had significantly reduced apoptotic fractions when transiently challenged with 5-FU. ResB and ResD cells were respectively 27- and 121-fold more resistant to 5-FU, had increased doubling times, and significantly increased plating efficiencies compared to the parental cells. Both resistant derivatives retained the wild-type TP53 genotype, TP53 copy number and CGH profile characteristic of the parental line. Alterations in gene expression in the resistant derivatives compared to the parental line were assessed using oligonucleotide microarrays. Overall, the 5-FU-resistant derivatives were characterized by reduced apoptosis and a more aggressive growth phenotype, consistent with the observed up-regulation of apoptosis-inhibitory genes (e.g., IRAK1, MALT1, BIRC5), positive growth-regulatory genes (e.g., CCND3, CCNE2, CCNF, CYR61), and metastasis genes (e.g., LMNB1, F3, TMSNB), and down-regulation of apoptosis-promoting genes (e.g., BNIP3, BNIP3L, FOXO3A) and negative growth-regulatory genes (e.g., AREG, CCNG2, CDKN1A, CDKN1C, GADD45A). 5-FU metabolism-associated genes (e.g., TYMS, DTYMK, UP) and DNA repair genes (e.g., FEN1, FANCG, RAD23B) were also up-regulated in one or both resistant derivatives, suggesting that the resistant derivatives might be able to overcome both 5-FU inhibition of thymidylate synthase and the DNA damage caused by 5-FU, respectively. Development of 5-FU resistance thus appears to encompass deregulation of apoptosis-, proliferation-, DNA repair-, and metastasis-associated regulatory pathways.

Blood, 104, 795- 801

Genomic DNA-chip hybridization in t(11;14)-positive mantle cell lymphomas shows a high frequency of aberrations and allows a refined characterization of consensus regions.

H. Kohlhammer, C. Schwaenen, S. Wessendorf, K. Holzmann, H.A. Kestler, D. Kienle, T.F.E. Barth, P. Möller, G. Ott, J. Kalla, B. Radlwimmer, A. Pscherer, S. Stilgenbauer, H. Döhner, P. Lichter, M. Bentz

Tumor samples of 53 patients with t(11;14)-positive mantle cell lymphomas (MCLs) were analyzed by matrix-based comparative genomic hybridization (matrix-CGH) using a dedicated DNA array. In 49 cases, genomic aberrations were identified. In comparison to chromosomal CGH, a 50% higher number of aberrations was found and the high specificity of matrix-CGH was demonstrated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses. The 11q gains and 13q34 deletions, which have not been described as frequent genomic aberrations in MCL, were identified by matrix-CGH in 15 and 26 cases, respectively. For several genomic aberrations, novel consensus regions were defined: 8p21 (size of the consensus region, 2.4 megabase pairs [Mbp]; candidate genes: TNFRSF10B, TNFRSF10C, TNFRSF10D); 10p13 (2.7 Mbp; BMI1); 11q13 (1.4 Mbp; RELA); 11q13 (5.2 Mbp; CCND1); 13q14 (0.4 Mbp; RFP2, BCMSUN) and 13q34 (6.9 Mbp). In univariate analyses correlating genomic aberrations and clinical course, 8p- and 13q14- deletions were associated with an inferior overall survival. These data provide a basis for further studies focusing on the identification of pathogenetically or clinically relevant genes in MCL.

Am J Clin Pathol, 122, 875- 882

Frequent gains of the short arm of chromosome 9 in Multiple Myeloma with normal G-banded karyotype detected by comparative genomic hybridization.

J. Tchinda, S. Volpert, M. Kropff, W.E. Berdel, J. Kienast, F. Meinhardt, J. Horst

A number of genetic abnormalities have been detected in multiple myeloma (MM) using cytogenetic techniques. The prominent abnormalities are deletions of 13q and translocations affecting the IgH locus on 14q32. The recurrence of chromosomal abnormalities in MM suggests a specific role for them concerning its pathogenesis. We performed comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) on samples from 53 patients with MM and 4 with monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance. In 31 cases (54%), normal ratio profiles were found, whereas 26 cases (46%) had aberrant profiles. The most common aberrations were gains of 9p (n = 14), 11 (n = 9), and 21q (n = 5) and loss of 22 (n = 7). In earlier reports on cytogenetics of lymphomas, gains of 9p are described as characteristic of primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma, but the consensus region is smaller than in the present study (9p23pter vs 9p13pter). Therefore, we suggest a stronger genetic affinity between MM and primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma than MM and other B-cell lymphomas. To support this suggestion, more molecular cytogenetic techniques and expression analyses have to be performed.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1309/5KWK-P6UK-GNXX-HMYH

Cancer research, 64, 6453- 6460

Genomic and expression profiling of chromosome 17 in breast cancer reveals complex patterns of alterations and novel candidate genes

B. Orsetti, M. Nugoli, N. Cervera, L. Lasorsa, P. Chuchana, L. Ursule, C. Nguyen, R. Redon, du Manoir, S., C. Rodriguez, C. Theillet

Chromosome 17 is severely rearranged in breast cancer. Whereas the short arm undergoes frequent losses, the long arm harbors complex combinations of gains and losses. In this work we present a comprehensive study of quantitative anomalies at chromosome 17 by genomic array-comparative genomic hybridization and of associated RNA expression changes by cDNA arrays. We built a genomic array covering the entire chromosome at an average density of 1 clone per 0.5 Mb, and patterns of gains and losses were characterized in 30 breast cancer cell lines and 22 primary tumors. Genomic profiles indicated severe rearrangements. Compiling data from all samples, we subdivided chromosome 17 into 13 consensus segments: 4 regions showing mainly losses, 6 regions showing mainly gains, and 3 regions showing either gains or losses. Within these segments, smallest regions of overlap were defined (17 for gains and 16 for losses). Expression profiles were analyzed by means of cDNA arrays comprising 358 known genes at 17q. Comparison of expression changes with quantitative anomalies revealed that about half of the genes were consistently affected by copy number changes. We identified 85 genes overexpressed when gained (39 of which mapped within the smallest regions of overlap), 67 genes underexpressed when lost (32 of which mapped to minimal intervals of losses), and, interestingly, 32 genes showing reduced expression when gained. Candidate genes identified in this study belong to very diverse functional groups, and a number of them are novel candidates.

J. Appl. Genet., 44, 539- 546

Molecular cytogenetic techniques in detecting subtle chromosomal imbalances

B. Kaluzewski, M. Constantinou, E. Zajac

Diagnostic possibilities of CGH and M-FISH techniques for detection of submicroscopic chromosomal imbalancies were compared on the basis of two cases of t(X;Y) and one case of marker chromosome. In cases with t(X;Y), the sequences specific for chromosome Y were detected by PCR and CGH, but the localisation of these sequences on the short arm of chromosome X was confirmed by the FISH technique, employing two Yp-specific probes for SRY and TSPY genes. Significant differences between above cases were revealed in the size of Yp chromosome fragments translocated on chromosome X. An extra material of chromosome marker could not be identified by classical banding and FISH techniques and it was only CGH and M-FISH techniques that enabled detecting the chromosomal origin of the marker. The applied CGH technique enabled finding subtle chromosomal imbalancies in the presented cases with a resolution of approximately 3 Mbp.

Neoplasia, 5, 23- 31

Cytogenetic profile of unknown primary tumors: clues for their pathogenesis and clinical management

D. Pantou, H. Tsarouha, A. Papandopoulou, L. Mahaira, I. Kyriazoglou, N. Apostolikas, S. Markidou, T. Trangas, N. Pandis, G. Bardi

Unknown primary tumors (UPTs) represent an entity of great clinical and biological interest, whose origin cannot be determined even after medical workup. To better understand their pathogenesis by outlining their genetic composition, 20 UPTs were investigated by G-banding, supplemented with Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization and Comparative Genomic Hybridization analyses. The data obtained were sufficient to reach a diagnosis in five cases-four lymphomas and one Ewing sarcoma-demonstrating that in a subset of UPTs, cytogenetics can be an adjunct for differential diagnosis. In the remaining 15 UPTs, an aggressive cytogenetic pattern was revealed. The most frequently rearranged chromosome regions were 1q21, 3p13, 6q15-23, 7q22, 11p12-5, and 11q14-24, pinpointing gene loci probably associated with the peculiar pathogenesis of UPTs. The preferential involvement of 4q31, 6q15, 10q25, and 13q22 in adenocarcinomas (whereas 11q22 is involved in the rest of the carcinomas)-in addition to the marked divergence in the mean average of chromosomal changes, 16 and 3, respectively-demonstrates genotypic differences between the two histologic subgroups. Furthermore, the significantly shorter survival in cases displaying massive chromosome changes compared with those having a few changes indicates that the cytogenetic pattern might be used as a tool to assess prognosis in UPTs, even without the detection of their primary site.

Int. J. Cancer, 101, 137- 145

Combined karyotyping, CGH and m-FISH analysis allows detailed characterization of unidentified chromosomal rearrangements in Merkel cell carcinoma

M. Van Gele, J.H. Leonard, N. Van Roy, H. Van Limbergen, S. Van Belle, V. Cocquyt, H. Salwen, A. De Paepe, F. Speleman

Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare aggressive neuroendocrine tumor of the skin. Cytogenetic studies have indicated that deletions and unbalanced translocations involving chromosome 1 short arm material occur in 40% of the investigated cases. Recurrent chromosomal imbalances detected by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis were loss of 3p, 10q, 13q and 17p and gains of 1q, 3q, 5p and 8q. In order to study genomic aberrations occurring in MCC in further detail, we combined karyotyping, CGH and multiplex-fluorescence in situ hybridization (M-FISH), a strategy that proved to be successful in the analysis of other malignancies. Analysis of 6 MCC cell lines and 1 MCC tumor revealed mostly near-diploid karyotypes with an average of 5 chromosomal rearrangements. The observed karyotypic changes were heterogeneous, with 3-27 breakpoints per case, leading to imbalance of the involved chromosomal regions that was confirmed by CGH. Chromosomal rearrangements involving the short arm of chromosome 1, the long arm of chromosome 3 and gain of 5p material were the most frequently observed abnormalities in our study. In keeping with previous observations, this series of MCCs showed no evidence for high-level amplification. We provid a detailed description of chromosomal translocations occurring in MCC that could be useful to direct future intensive investigation of these chromosomal regions.

Genes, Chromososmes & Cancer, 28, 329- 336

Chromosomal regions involved in the pathogenesis of osteosarcomas.

C. Stock, L. Kager, F.-M. Fink, H. Gadner, P.F. Ambros

The comparative genomic hybridization technique (CGH) was used to identify common chromosomal imbalances in osteosarcomas (OS), which frequently display complex karyotypic changes. We analyzed 13 high-grade primary tumors, 5 corresponding cell lines, 2 primary tumors grade 2, and 1 recurrent tumor from a total of 16 patients. Some of the CGH results have been verified by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies. Gains of chromosomal material were more frequent than losses. Most common gains were observed at 8q (11 cases), 4q (9 cases), 7q (8 cases), 5p (7 cases), and 1p (8 cases). The smallest regions of overlap have been narrowed down to 8q23 (10 cases), 4q12-13 (8 cases), 5p13-14 (7 cases), 7q31-32 (7 cases), 8q21 (7 cases), and 4q28-31 (5 cases). These data demonstrate that a number of chromosomal regions and even two distinct loci on 4q and 8q are involved in the pathogenesis of OS, with gain of 4q12-13 chromosomal material representing a newly identified locus. Seven of 16 cases displayed, besides gain of 8q23 sequences, gain of MYC copies in CGH and FISH. Previous CGH reports confined gain of 8q material to 8cen-q13, 8q21.3-8q22, and 8q23-qter, whereas our data suggest that the loci 8q21 and 8q23-24 are affected in the development of OS. In contrast to recent reports, copy number increases at 8q and 1q21 did not have an unfavorable impact on prognosis in the present series. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 28:329-336, 2000.

Int. J. Oncol., 16, 1099- 1105

Delimiting the use of comparative genomic hybridization in human myeloid neoplastic disorders

E. Gebhart, I. Verdorfer, W. Saul, U. Trautmann, L. Brecevic

Hematopoietic disorders can be used as a suitable tool of additional information on the actual resolving power of comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Therefore, CGH examination was performed of DNA extracted from 23 acute and 15 chronic myeloproliferative disorders which had just been analyzed using classical cytogenetic techniques. In nearly all cases CGH analysis was repeated with reversely labeled probes. A Zeiss axioplan microscope was equipped with the ISIS 3 system for photometric evaluation of the CGH data. A main group was selected of 34 cases showing karyotypic mosaics when routinely diagnosed by classical cytogenetics. The grade of mosaicism was basically determined from the classical cytogenetic analysis and was additionally defined examining target anomalies by I-FISH analysis in 28 of the cases. The second group included 23 cases with deletions, and in 1 case another informative genomic imbalance could be analyzed. Every target anomaly irrespective of its type could be detected in all cases with an affected cell population equalling or exceeding about 25%, but in none was it below 23%. This value was the lowest and was found in a case, with CGH-detected 20q deletion. The smallest deletions of two bands on 20q which could visually be detected by CGH were estimated in the range of 5-7 Mb. CGH was also suitable to detect imbalances which were not clearly detected by routine cytogenetics. Reverse labelling, performed in nearly all cases, confirmed the result of the original CGH analysis. These data not only document the readiness and reliability of CGH studies on human leukemia, but also further contribute to a clearer definition of the limits of the resolving power of this technique.

Pathology, 31, 337- 344

Oncogene Amplification in Medulloblastoma: Analysis of a Case by Comparative Genomic Hybridization and Fluorescence in situ Hybridization

V. Jay, J. Squire, J. Bayant, A.M. Alkhani, J.T. Rutka, M. Zielenska

<p>We describe amplification of the MYCC oncogene in a medulloblastoma with aggressive clinical behavior. The patient was a six year old boy who underwent gross total surgical excision of a cerebellar tumor. Despite chemotherapy and total neuraxis radiation, the clinical course was one of relentless progression, with extensive subarachnoid spread and death within eight months of presentation. The pathological features were consistent with the recently described, "large cell variant" of medulloblastoma. Tumor cells exhibited large vesicular nuclei, prominent nucleoli and strong immunoreactivity for synaptophysin. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay revealed no evidence of MYCN amplification or 1p deletion in the tumor. FISH analysis revealed evidence of MYCC amplification in the 20- to 30-fold range. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) revealed regions of gains and amplification in three locations, with gains of chromosome 7, amplification of 8q24 (corresponding to the MYCC locus) and gains of the long arm of chromosome 17 (suggestive of isochromosome 17q). While conventional karyotypic analysis was not successful in the present case, CGH provided invaluable information about gene amplification and losses/gains of chromosomes and chromosomal regions. Thus, CGH is a powerful technique applicable to frozen or paraffin-embedded material which helps to ascertain the presence of gene amplification even without prior knowledge of the gene to be tested.</p>

Genes Chromosomes Cancer, 21, 1- 4

Minimal Sizes of Deletions Detected by Comperative Genomic Hybridization

M. Bentz, A. Plesch, S. Stigenbauer, H. Döhner, P. Lichter

<p>Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) has been used widely for the molecular cytogenetic analysis of tumors. Until now, the spatial resolution of this technique for diagnosing deletions of chromosomal sequences has not been assessed in detail. In the present study, we performed CGH analyses on five DNA samples derived from B-cell leukemias with 11q deletions, the sizes of which ranged from 3 Mbp to 14-18 Mbp. CGH experiments were evaluated by two established commercial analysis systems. Deletions down to a size of 10-12 Mbp were diagnosed based on a diagnostic threshold value of 0.8, if the vast majority of cells carried the deletion. For cases with smaller deletions, the ratio profiles were shifted toward underrepresentation at the respective chromosomal bands; however, the diagnostic threshold value was not reached. In all five cases, there was complete agreement between the two image analysis systems.</p>

Chromosome Res, 6, 478- 494

Interspecies comparative genome hybridization and interspecies representational difference analysis reveal gross DNA differences between humans and great apes

R. Toder, Y. Xia, E. Bausch

Comparative chromosome G-/R-banding, comparative gene mapping and chromosome painting techniques have demonstrated that only few chromosomal rearrangements occurred during great ape and human evolution. Interspecies comparative genome hybridization (CGH), used here in this study, between human, gorilla and pygmy chimpanzee revealed species-specific regions in all three species. In contrast to the human, a far more complex distribution of species-specific blocks was detected with CGH in gorilla and pygmy chimpanzee. Most of these blocks coincide with already described heterochromatic regions on gorilla and chimpanzee chromosomes. Representational difference analysis (RDA) was used to subtract the complex genome of gorilla against human in order to enrich gorilla-specific DNA sequences. Gorilla-specific clones isolated with this technique revealed a 32-bp repeat unit. These clones were mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to the telomeric regions of gorilla chromosomes that had been shown by interspecies CGH to contain species-specific sequences.

Genes, Chromsomes & Cancer, 23, 141- 152

Genetic Heterogeneity of Neuroblastoma Studied by Comparative Genomic Hybridization

J. Vandesompele, N. Van Roy, et al, M. Van Gele

<p>Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis was performed on 36 neuroblastomas of both low and high stage of disease. This study significantly increases the number of neuroblastoma tumors studied by CGH. Analysis of larger series of tumors is particularly important in view of the different clinical subgroups that are recognized for this tumor. The present data and a comparison with all published CGH data on neuroblastoma provide further insights into the genetic heterogeneity of neuroblastoma. Stage 1, 2, and 4S tumors showed predominantly whole chromosome gains and losses. A similar pattern of whole chromosome imbalances, although less frequent, was observed in stage 3 and 4 tumors, in addition to partial chromosome gains and losses. An increase in chromosome 17 or 17q copy number was observed in 81% of tumors. The most frequent losses, either through partial or whole chromosome underrepresentation, were observed for 1p (25%), 3p (25%), 4p (14%), 9p (19%), 11q (28%), and 14q (31%). The presence of 3p, 11q or 14q deletions defines a genetic subset of neuroblastomas and contributes to the further genetic characterization of stage 3 and 4 tumors without MYCN amplification (MNA) and 1p deletion. The present study also provides additional evidence for a possible role of genes at 11q13 in neuroblastoma. In a few cases, 1p deletion or MNA detected by FISH or Southern blotting was not found by CGH, indicating that the use of a second, independent technique for evaluation of these genetic parameters is recommended.</p>

American Journal of Pathology, 152, 1107- 1123

DNA Copy Number Amplifications In Human Neoplasms

S. Knuutila, A.-M. Björkqvist, K. Autio, M. Tarkkanen, et al, M. Wolf

This review summarizes reports of recurrent DNA sequence copy number amplifications in human neoplasms detected by comparative genomic hybridization. Some of the chromosomal areas with recurrent DNA copy number amplifications (amplicons) of 1p22-p31, 1p32-p36, 1q, 2p13-p16, 2p23-p25, 2q31-q33, 3q, 5p, 6p12-pter, 7p12-p13, 7q11.2, 7q21-q22, 8p11-p12, 8q, 11q13-q14, 12p, 12q13-q21, 13q14, 13q22-qter, 14q13-q21, 15q24-qter, 17p11.2-p12, 17q12-q21, 17q22-qter, 18q, 19p13.2-pter, 19cen-q13.3, 20p11.2-p12, 20q, Xp11.2-p21, and Xp11-q13 and genes therein are presented in more detail. The paper with more than 150 references and two tables can be accessed from our web site The data will be updated biannually until the year 2001.

Cancer Genet Cytogenet, 97, 135- 142

Comparative Genomic Hybridization Analysis of Human Neuroblastomas: Detection of Distal 1p Deletions and Further Molecular Genetic Characterization of Neuroblastoma Cell Lines

N. Van Roy, A. Jauch, M. Van Gele, G. Laureys, R. Versteeg, A. De Paepe, T. Cremer, F. Speleman

The molecular basis of malignant mesothelioma is poorly known. We examined genetic changes in 11 mesothelioma specimens by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Five DNA specimens originated from uncultured tumor tissues and six from cell lines established from the same patients. Findings from the classical karyotypic characterization of both primary tumors and cell lines have been reported previously. In the CGH analyses the most common genetic alterations in the 11 mesothelioma specimens were losses of chromosomal regions in 1p, 8p, 14q, and 22q and gains of 5p, 6p, 8q, 15q, 17q, and 20. The cell lines had on average a much higher total number of genetic changes than the uncultured tumor specimens. Clonal relationship between the cell lines and the uncultured tissue specimens could not usually be demonstrated even though they originated from the same patient. The observed differences may partly be due to high frequency of chromosomal rearrangements, which CGH cannot detect, partly due to contamination of tumor specimens with normal tissue, and partly due to genetic evolution in tumor cell lines.

Blood, 87, 5269- 5278

DNA copy number changes in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma - Comparative genomic hybridization study

O. Monni, H. Joensuu, K. Franssila, S. Knuutila

We studied DNA copy number changes in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma using comparative genomic hybridization analysis on 20 primary tumors and on 12 recurrent tumors excised after chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Twenty-nine (91%) of the cases showed abnormal copy number karyotypes. Chromosomal regions at X (41%), 1q (38%), 7 (31%), 3 (24%), 6p (21%), 11 (21%), 12 (21%), and 18 (21%) were most frequently gained, and the most common losses involved 6q (38%), X (21%), 1p (14%), and 8p (10%). High-level amplifications were observed at 6p23-ter, 10p12-14, 17p1l.2, 18q21-ter, and Xq22-ter, all but 18q appearing only in the recurrent tumors. Gains (median, 2; range, 0 to 10) were more frequent than losses (median, 1; range, 0 to 7; P = .0004). The median number of aberrations found in the recurrent tumors (6.5) was greater than that in the primary tumors (2; P = .01). The copy number changes found in the recurrent tumors were more random than those found in the primary tumors, which were mainly located in the most frequently affected regions. Our findings are in line with those observed using conventional cytogenetic analysis, but especially novel high-level amplifications were detected. Southern blot analysis showed BCL2 amplification, but not translocation t(14;18)(q32;q21), in cases in which a gain at 18q was detected by comparative genomic hybridization, which strongly suggests that, in addition to translocation, gene amplification is another mechanism for the overexpression of the BCL2 protein.

Cancer Genet Cytogenet, 89, 7- 13

Gains and losses of DNA sequences in malignant mesothelioma by comparative genomic hybridisation

P. Kivipensas, A.-M. Björkqvist, R. Karhu, K. Pelin, K. Linnainmaa, L. Tammilehto, K. Mattson, O.-P. Kallioniemi, S. Knuutila

The molecular basis of malignant mesothelioma is poorly known. We examined genetic changes in 11 mesothelioma specimens by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Five DNA specimens originated from uncultured tumor tissues and six from cell lines established from the same patients. Findings from the classical karyotypic characterization of both primary tumors and cell lines have been reported previously. In the CGH analyses the most common genetic alterations in the 11 mesothelioma specimens were losses of chromosomal regions in 1p, 8p, 14q, and 22q and gains of 5p, 6p, 8q, 15q, 17q, and 20. The cell lines had on average a much higher total number of genetic changes than the uncultured tumor specimens. Clonal relationship between the cell lines and the uncultured tissue specimens could not usually be demonstrated even though they originated from the same patient. The observed differences may partly be due to high frequency of chromosomal rearrangements, which CGH cannot detect, partly due to contamination of tumor specimens with normal tissue, and partly due to genetic evolution in tumor cell lines.

Genes Chromosomes Cancer, 16, 31- 34

Ring chromosomes in parosteal osteosarcoma contain sequences from 12q13-15. A combined cytogenetic and comparative genomic hybridization study

J. Szymanska, N. Mandahl, F. Mertens, M. Tarkkanen, E. Karaharju, S. Knuutila

<p>Seven parosteal osteosarcoma (POS) samples, six of which were cytogenetically characterized, were studied by using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). All samples showed DNA sequence copy number changes (mean, six aberrations/tumor; range, 1-13); gains were more frequent than losses. Gain of 12q13-15 sequences was found in every tumor and correlated with the presence of ring chromosomes. High-level amplification, which was detected in four tumors, was seen only in chromosome 12, with 12q13-14 as the minimal common region. By using chromosome painting, one of the rings of one case was shown to be composed entirely of chromosome 12 material. Together with previous data, our findings show that gain of 12q13-15 sequences is a characteristic feature of POS and that these sequences are contained within the ring chromosomes.</p>

Cancer Research, 55, 1334- 1338

Gains and losses of DNA sequences in osteosarcomas by comparative genomic hybridization

M. Tarkkanen, R. Karhu, A. Kallioniemi, I. Elomaa, A.H. Kivioja, J. Nevalainen, T. Böhling, E. Karaharju, E. Hyytinen, S. Knuutila, O.P. Kallioniemi

Our aim was to identify chromosomal regions that are likely to harbor previously unknown genes with an important role in the genesis of osteosarcoma. Comparative genomic hybridization was used to screen for losses and gains of DNA sequences along all chromosome arms in 11 tumors. Extensive genetic aberrations, with an average of 11 changes/tumor (range, 1-20), were found in 10 of the 11 specimens. High level amplifications of small chromosomal regions were detected in eight tumors. These involved the 12q12-q13 region (known to contain the SAS-MDM2 locus) and several previously unreported amplification sites such as 17p11-p12, 3q26, and Xq12. When all DNA sequence gains were evaluated, the gains at 8q and Xp were most common (45%). The most common losses of DNA sequences were seen at 2q, 6q, 8p, and 10p (36%). In conclusion, despite the very complex pattern of genetic changes in osteosarcomas, certain chromosomal regions appear to be affected more often than others. Most of these regions have not previously been reported to be implicated in osteosarcomas and may thus highlight locations of novel genes with an important role in the development and progression of these tumors.