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Animal science journal = Nihon chikusan Gakkaiho, 88, 27--32
2017

Comparative genomic hybridization in detection of DNA changes in canine lymphomas.

Drážovská, Monika, Šiviková, Katarína, Dianovský, Ján, Horňák, Miroslav

In this study, chromosomal imbalances in tumor tissues (lymphomas) and nucleotide changes in tumor suppressor TP53 were studied in a Bernese Mountain dog bitch and a cross breed bitch. Using comparative genomic hybridization, numerous chromosomal rearrangements were detected, which indicated the heterogeneity in tumor growth: in the cross breed bitch, a deletion on the chromosome 9, and duplications on chromosomes 5, 8 and 17 have been found. In the Bernese Mountain Dog bitch, losses on chromosomes 1, 5, 8, 12, 18, 22, 27, 29 and gains on chromosomes 1, 2, 9, 11, 15, 16, 18, 20, 23, 24, 25, 28, 29, 30, 34, 36, 37 and 38 were identified. With the sequencing of the TP53 gene, one silent mutation, transition A/G at position 138 in exon 5 was detected, without changing the amino acid.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1111/asj.12582

Oncotarget, 8, 26269--26280
2017

Opposite effects of GCN5 and PCAF knockdowns on the alternative mechanism of telomere maintenance.

Jeitany, Maya, Bakhos-Douaihy, Dalal, Silvestre, David C, Pineda, Jose R, Ugolin, Nicolas, Moussa, Angela, Gauthier, Laurent R, Busso, Didier, Junier, Marie-Pierre, Chneiweiss, Hervé, Chevillard, Sylvie, Desmaze, Chantal, Boussin, François D

Cancer cells can use a telomerase-independent mechanism, known as alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT), to elongate their telomeres. General control non-derepressible 5 (GCN5) and P300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF) are two homologous acetyltransferases that are mutually exclusive subunits in SAGA-like complexes. Here, we reveal that down regulation of GCN5 and PCAF had differential effects on some phenotypic characteristics of ALT cells. Our results suggest that GCN5 is present at telomeres and opposes telomere recombination, in contrast to PCAF that may indirectly favour them in ALT cells.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.18632/oncotarget.15447

Gastroenterol Res Pract, 2016, 6089658
2016

The Role of Chromosomal Instability and Epigenetics in Colorectal Cancers Lacking beta-Catenin/TCF Regulated Transcription.

Abdel-Rahman, Wael M., Lotsari-Salomaa, Johanna E., Kaur, Sippy, Niskakoski, Anni, Knuutila, Sakari, Järvinen, Heikki, Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka, Peltomäki, Päivi

All colorectal cancer cell lines except RKO displayed active β-catenin/TCF regulated transcription. This feature of RKO was noted in familial colon cancers; hence our aim was to dissect its carcinogenic mechanism. MFISH and CGH revealed distinct instability of chromosome structure in RKO. Gene expression microarray of RKO versus 7 colon cancer lines (with active Wnt signaling) and 3 normal specimens revealed 611 differentially expressed genes. The majority of the tested gene loci were susceptible to LOH in primary tumors with various β-catenin localizations as a surrogate marker for β-catenin activation. The immunohistochemistry of selected genes (IFI16, RGS4, MCTP1, DGKI, OBCAM/OPCML, and GLIPR1) confirmed that they were differentially expressed in clinical specimens. Since epigenetic mechanisms can contribute to expression changes, selected target genes were evaluated for promoter methylation in patient specimens from sporadic and hereditary colorectal cancers. CMTM3, DGKI, and OPCML were frequently hypermethylated in both groups, whereas KLK10, EPCAM, and DLC1 displayed subgroup specificity. The overall fraction of hypermethylated genes was higher in tumors with membranous β-catenin. We identified novel genes in colorectal carcinogenesis that might be useful in personalized tumor profiling. Tumors with inactive Wnt signaling are a heterogeneous group displaying interaction of chromosomal instability, Wnt signaling, and epigenetics.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1155/2016/6089658

Sci Rep, 6, 32510
2016

Replication Timing of Human Telomeres is Conserved during Immortalization and Influenced by Respective Subtelomeres.

Piqueret-Stephan, Laure, Ricoul, Michelle, Hempel, William M., Sabatier, Laure

Telomeres are specific structures that protect chromosome ends and act as a biological clock, preventing normal cells from replicating indefinitely. Mammalian telomeres are replicated throughout S-phase in a predetermined order. However, the mechanism of this regulation is still unknown. We wished to investigate this phenomenon under physiological conditions in a changing environment, such as the immortalization process to better understand the mechanism for its control. We thus examined the timing of human telomere replication in normal and SV40 immortalized cells, which are cytogenetically very similar to cancer cells. We found that the timing of telomere replication was globally conserved under different conditions during the immortalization process. The timing of telomere replication was conserved despite changes in telomere length due to endogenous telomerase reactivation, in duplicated homologous chromosomes, and in rearranged chromosomes. Importantly, translocated telomeres, possessing their initial subtelomere, retained the replication timing of their homolog, independently of the proportion of the translocated arm, even when the remaining flanking DNA is restricted to its subtelomere, the closest chromosome-specific sequences (inferior to 500 kb). Our observations support the notion that subtelomere regions strongly influence the replication timing of the associated telomere.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1038/srep32510

Journal of applied toxicology : JAT
2016

Genotoxic risk of ethyl-paraben could be related to telomere shortening.

Finot, F, Kaddour, A, Morat, L, Mouche, I, Zaguia, N, Cuceu, C, Souverville, D, Négrault, S, Cariou, O, Essahli, A, Prigent, N, Saul, J, Paillard, F, Heidingsfelder, L, Lafouge, P, Al Jawhari, M, Hempel, W M, El May, M, Colicchio, B, Dieterlen, A, Jeandidier, E, Sabatier, L, Clements, J, M'Kacher, R

The ability of parabens to promote the appearance of multiple cancer hallmarks in breast epithelium cells provides grounds for regulatory review of the implication of the presence of parabens in human breast tissue. It is well documented that telomere dysfunction plays a significant role in the initiation of genomic instability during carcinogenesis in human breast cancer. In the present study, we evaluated the genotoxic effect of ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (ethyl-paraben), with and without metabolic activation (S9), in studies following OECD guidelines. We observed a significant increase in genotoxic damage using the Mouse Lymphoma Assay and in vitro micronucleus (MN) tests in the L5178Y cell line in the presence of S9 only after a short exposure. A high frequency of MN was observed in the TK6 cells after a short exposure (3 h) in the presence of S9 and a long exposure (26 h) without S9. We found significant increases in the MN frequency and induced chromosomal aberrations in the lymphocytes of only one donor after ethyl-paraben exposure in the presence of S9 after a short exposure. Cytogenetic characterization of the paraben-treated cells demonstrated telomere shortening associated with telomere loss and telomere deletions in L5178Y and TK6 cells and lymphocytes of the paraben sensitive-donor. In a control cohort of 68 human lymphocytes, telomere length and telomere aberrations were age-dependent and showed high inter-individual variation. This study is the first to link telomere shortening and the genotoxic effect of ethyl paraben in the presence of S9 and raises the possibility that telomere shortening may be a proxy for underlying inter-individual sensitivity to ethyl-paraben. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1002/jat.3425

Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet, 159B(5), 598--604
July, 2012

Mild cognitive impairment identified in older individuals with Downsyndrome by reduced telomere signal numbers and shorter telomeresmeasured in microns.

Edmund C. Jenkins, Lingling Ye, Milen Velinov, Sharon J. Krinsky-McHale, Warren B. Zigman, Nicole Schupf, Wayne P. Silverman

Previously, we established that short-term T lymphocyte cultures from people with Down syndrome (DS) and dementia (Alzheimer's disease) had shorter telomeres than did those from age- and sex-matched people with DS only, quantified as significantly reduced numbers of signals of peptide nucleic acid (PNA) telomere probes in whole metaphases [Jenkins et al. (2008); Neurosci Lett 440:340-343] as well as reduced telomere probe light intensity values in interphases [Jenkins et al. (2010); Neurobiol Aging 31:765-771]. We now describe shorter telomere length in adults with DS and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) compared to age- and sex-matched individuals with DS without MCI. Telomere length is quantified by reduced telomere signal numbers and shorter chromosome 1 telomeres measured in micrometers (microns). These findings were in agreement with quantitative light intensity measurements of chromosome 1 and chromosome 21 PNA telomere probes with and without the use of a #normalizing##ratio# involving the fluorescence exhibited by a PNA probe for centromere 2, and with the use of light intensity measurements of interphase preparations. Most importantly, the distributions of chromosome 1 telomere lengths (in microns) were completely non-overlapping for adults with and without MCI, indicating that this measure has great promise as a biomarker for MCI as well as dementia in this population.

PLoS One, 4, 0- 0
2009

Human telomere length correlates to the size of the associated chromosome arm.

J.L. Wise, R.J. Crout, D.W. McNeil, R.J. Weyant, M.L.Marazita, S.L. Wenger

The majority of human telomere length studies have focused on the overall length of telomeres within a cell. In fact, very few studies have examined telomere length for individual chromosome arms. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between chromosome arm size and the relative length of the associated telomere. Quantitative Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (Q-FISH) was used to measure the relative telomere length of each chromosome arm in metaphases from cultured lymphocytes of 17 individuals. A statistically significant positive correlation (r = 0.6) was found between telomere length and the size of the associated chromosome arm, which was estimated based on megabase pair measurements from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/projects/mapview/.

Diabetes, 57(11), 2950--2957
November, 2008

Lymphocytes of type 2 diabetic women carry a high load of stablechromosomal aberrations: a novel risk factor for disease-relatedearly death.

Bernhard O. Boehm, Peter M{\"o}ller, Josef H{\"o}gel, Bernhard R. Winkelmann, Wilfried Renner, Silke Rosinger, Ursula Seelhorst, Britta Wellnitz, Winfried M{\"a}rz, Julia Melzner, Silke Br{\"u}derlein

OBJECTIVE—Diabetes is associated with an increased risk of death in women. Oxidative stress due to chronic hyperglycemia leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species and loss of chromosomal integrity. To clarify whether diabetes is a premature aging syndrome, we determined telomere erosion dynamics and occurrence of structural chromosomal aberrations in women of the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) Study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Telomere lengths and karyotypes were examined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Regarding these parameters, surviving and deceased type 2 diabetic women of the LURIC study were compared with nondiabetic LURIC women with or without coronary heart disease and with healthy female control subjects. RESULTS—Significantly enhanced telomere attrition was seen in all LURIC subjects compared with healthy control subjects. Although the average telomere-length loss is equivalent to well >10 years of healthy aging, telomere erosion was not associated with outcome within the LURIC cohort. However, strikingly high numbers of stable chromosomal aberrations were found in type 2 diabetic women but not in LURIC disease control subjects or in healthy individuals. Furthermore, within the younger age- groups, deceased type 2 diabetes patients had significantly more marker chromosomes than the surviving type 2 diabetic patients. CONCLUSIONS—All women at high risk for cardiovascular death have accelerated telomere erosion, not caused by type 2 diabetes per se but likely linked to other risk factors, including dyslipidemia. By contrast, the occurrence of marker chromosomes is associated with type 2 diabetes and is a novel risk factor for type 2 diabetes–related early death. Type 2 diabetes is characterized by increased morbidity and all-cause mortality (1,2). The combination of excess caloric intake and reduced physical activity leading to obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension increases the risk for diabetes and coronary heart disease (CHD). Recent data show that among diabetic men, the mortality rate has decreased significantly, whereas in diabetic women, no such trend was found (3). The all-cause mortality rate difference between diabetic and nondiabetic women is considerable. Therefore, the combination of diabetes with multiple risk factors identifies women at particularly high risk (2,4). The relative risk for morbidity and mortality in women with diabetes is increased compared with nondiabetic control subjects (2,5). Diabetes may therefore be regarded as a premature aging syndrome in which the overall metabolic shift leads to genotoxic stress that results in loss of chromosomal integrity (rev. in 6). Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and in diabetes-associated complications. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a common downstream mechanism whereby multiple by-products of glucose and (pro)inflammatory molecules exert adverse effects (7–11). DNA damage and telomere attrition can serve as markers of these processes and, consequently, mirror the pace of biological aging (rev. in 12–14). Hypothesizing along these lines, we studied telomere erosion dynamics and/or the occurrence of structural chromosomal aberrations in women with type 2 diabetes who were participants of the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) prospective cohort study (15). Life expectancy within the LURIC female cohort falls short by ∼10 years compared with the general female population in Germany. Telomeric erosion was much further advanced in all LURIC women, irrespective of type 2 diabetes, compared with age-matched control subjects, the difference amounting to >10 life-years. We further found a strikingly enhanced number of structural chromosomal aberrations in the peripheral lymphocytes of women with type 2 diabetes that was diabetes specific and, within the younger age-groups, associated with mortality.

Mol Cancer, 7, 76
2008

Human ESCs predisposition to karyotypic instability: Is a matterof culture adaptation or differential vulnerability among hESC linesdue to inherent properties?

Puri Catalina, Rosa Montes, Gertru Ligero, Laura Sanchez, de la Cueva, Teresa, Clara Bueno, Paola E Leone, Pablo Menendez

BACKGROUND: The use of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in research is increasing and hESCs hold the promise for many biological, clinical and toxicological studies. Human ESCs are expected to be chromosomally stable since karyotypic changes represent a pitfall for potential future applications. Recently, several studies have analysed the genomic stability of several hESC lines maintained after prolonged in vitro culture but controversial data has been reported. Here, we prompted to compare the chromosomal stability of three hESC lines maintained in the same laboratory using identical culture conditions and passaging methods. RESULTS: Molecular cytogenetic analyses performed in three different hESC lines maintained in parallel in identical culture conditions revealed significant differences among them in regard to their chromosomal integrity. In feeders, the HS181, SHEF-1 and SHEF-3 hESC lines were chromosomally stable up to 185 passages using either mechanical or enzymatic dissection methods. Despite the three hESC lines were maintained under identical conditions, each hESC line behaved differently upon being transferred to a feeder-free culture system. The two younger hESC lines, HS181 (71 passages) and SHEF-3 (51 passages) became chromosomally unstable shortly after being cultured in feeder-free conditions. The HS181 line gained a chromosome 12 by passage 17 and a marker by passage 21, characterized as a gain of chromosome 20 by SKY. Importantly, the mosaicism for trisomy 12 gradually increased up to 89\% by passage 30, suggesting that this karyotypic abnormality provides a selective advantage. Similarly, the SHEF-3 line also acquired a trisomy of chromosome 14 as early as passage 10. However, this karyotypic aberration did not confer selective advantage to the genetically abnormal cells within the bulk culture and the level of mosaicism for the trisomy 14 remained overtime between 15\%-36\%. Strikingly, however, a much older hESC line, SHEF-1, which was maintained for 185 passages in feeders did not undergo any numerical or structural chromosomal change after 30 passages in feeder-free culture and over 215 passages in total. CONCLUSION: These results support the concept that feeder-free conditions may partially contribute to hESC chromosomal changes but also confirm the hypothesis that regardless of the culture conditions, culture duration or splitting methods, some hESC lines are inherently more prone than others to karyotypic instability.

Mol Cytogenet, 1, 20
2008

Unusually stable abnormal karyotype in a highly aggressive melanomanegative for telomerase activity.

Sarantis Gagos, George Papaioannou, Maria Chiourea, Sophie Merk-Loretti, Charles-Edward Jefford, Panagiota Mikou, Irmgard Irminger-Finger, Anna Liossi, Jean-Louis Blouin, Sophie Dahoun

ABSTRACT: Malignant melanomas are characterized by increased karyotypic complexity, extended aneuploidy and heteroploidy. We report a melanoma metastasis to the peritoneal cavity with an exceptionally stable, abnormal pseudodiploid karyotype as verified by G-Banding, subtelomeric, centromeric and quantitative Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (FISH). Interestingly this tumor had no detectable telomerase activity as indicated by the Telomere Repeat Amplification Protocol. Telomeric Flow-FISH and quantitative telomeric FISH on mitotic preparations showed that malignant cells had relatively short telomeres. Microsatellite instability was ruled out by the allelic pattern of two major mononucleotide repeats. Our data suggest that a combination of melanoma specific genomic imbalances were sufficient and enough for this fatal tumor progression, that was not accompanied by genomic instability, telomerase activity, or the engagement of the alternative recombinatorial telomere lengthening pathway.

Int J Cancer, 120, 2734- 2738
2007

Chromosomal 20q gain in the DNA diploid component of aneuploid colorectal carcinomas.

P.M. De Angelis, T. Stokke, M. Beigi, G. Flatberg, M. Enger, K. Haug, H.C.D. Aass, A. Schj{\o}lberg, P.A. Andresen, S. Ariansen, A.S. B{\o}, O. Mj{\aa}land, O.P. Clausen

The order of appearance of different genetic aberrations during the shift from diploidy/near-diploidy to aneuploidy in colorectal cancers is not yet clear. We studied genetic alterations in flow cytometrically-sorted DNA diploid and corresponding aneuploid epithelial cell populations from each of 20 colorectal tumors using comparative genomic hybridization, FISH, and PCR. Analysis of the 19 cases in which aberrations were found in the flow-sorted diploid population indicated that large-scale aneuploidization in colorectal cancer was preceded by amplification of oncogene(s) localized to chromosome 20q13.2 and by KRAS mutations, but not by TP53 deletions or losses of large chromosomal regions such as 4q, 8p and 18q.

J Invest Dermatol, 126, 2308- 2315
2006

Are keratoacanthomas variants of squamous cell carcinomas? A comparison of chromosomal aberrations by comparative genomic hybridization.

O.P.F. Clausen, H.C.D. Aass, M. Beigi, K.J. Purdie, C.M. Proby, V.L. Brown, M. Mattingsdahl, F. Micci, S. K{\o}lvraa, L. Bolund, P.M. De Angelis

Keratoacanthoma (KA) is a benign keratinocytic neoplasm that usually presents as a solitary nodule on sunexposed areas, develops within 6-8 weeks and spontaneously regresses after 3-6 months. KAs share features such as infiltration and cytological atypia with squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Furthermore, there are reports of KAs that have metastasized, invoking the question of whether or not KA is a variant of SCC. To date no reported criteria are sensitive enough to discriminate reliably between KA and SCC, and consequently there is a clinical need for discriminating markers. We screened fresh frozen material from 132 KAs and 37 SCCs for gross chromosomal aberrations by using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Forty-nine KAs (37.1%) and 31 SCCs (83.7%) showed genomic aberrations, indicating a higher degree of chromosomal instability in SCCs. Gains of chromosomal material from 1p, 14q, 16q, 20q, and losses from 4p were seen significantly more frequently in SCCs compared with KAs (P-values 0.0033, 0.0198, 0.0301, 0.0017, and 0.0070), whereas loss from 9p was seen significantly more frequently in KAs (P-value 0.0434). The patterns of recurrent aberrations were also different in the two types of neoplasms, pointing to different genetic mechanisms involved in their developments.

Modern Pathology, 19, 648- 658
2006

Genetic profiling of stage I and II colorectal cancer may predict metastatic relapse.

F. Al-Mulla, A.I. Behbehani, M.S. Bitar, G. Varadharaj, J.J. Going

A substantial number of patients with early-stage colorectal cancer relapse from metastatic disease. Identification of these patients by genetic profiling of their primary tumours may allow more informed follow-up and tailored administration of adjuvant therapy. Primary tumours from 70 patients with early-stage and largely microsatellite-stable colorectal cancer were profiled using metaphase-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and the aberrations confirmed independently in a subset of patients using microarray-based CGH. Of the 70 cancers, 61 were amenable to CGH, and follow-up data was available from 56 patients. Genomic aberrations were correlated with patients' survival using univariate, multivariate and Kaplan-Meier survival curves. Metastatic primary tumours exhibited more complex genomic aberrations than non-metastatic primary tumours. Loss of chromosome 4p was an independent prognostic factor in early-stage colorectal cancer using multivariate analysis (Hazard ratio, 9.6; 95% CI, 3.3-28; P = 0.0001). Loss of both chromosome arms 8p and 18q had a statistically significant negative effect on disease-free survival. Moreover, primary tumours with loss of both chromosomes 4 and 14q bestowed poorer prognosis than tumours with loss of any one of the two chromosomes (P<0.0001). Genetic profiling of primary tumours of patients with early-stage colorectal cancer is of significant value in identifying the subset of patients who may relapse with metastatic disease. Accordingly, the molecular genetic features of primary tumours should be considered in the mainstream management of patients with this specific stage of the disease.

Cytogenet. Genome Res., 112, 194- 201
2006

Sex-specific telomere length profiles and age-dependent erosion dynamics of individual chromosome arms in humans.

S. Mayer, S. Br{\"u}derlein, S. Perner, I. Waibel, A. Holdenried, N. Ciloglu, C. Hasel, T. Mattfeldt, K.V. Nielsen, P. M{\"o}ller

During aging, telomeres are gradually shortened, eventually leading to cellular senescence. By T/C-FISH (telomere/centromere-FISH), we investigated human telomere length differences on single chromosome arms of 205 individuals in different age groups and sexes. For all chromosome arms, we found a linear correlation between telomere length and donor age. Generally, males had shorter telomeres and higher attrition rates. Every chromosome arm had its individual age-specific telomere length and erosion pattern, resulting in an unexpected heterogeneity in chromosome-specific regression lines. This differential erosion pattern, however, does not seem to be accidental, since we found a correlation between average telomere length of single chromosome arms in newborns and their annual attrition rate. Apart from the above-mentioned sex-specific discrepancies, chromosome arm-specific telomere lengths were strikingly similar in men and women. This implies a mechanism that arm specifically regulates the telomere length independent of gender, thus leading to interchromosomal telomere variations.

J. Med. Assoc. Thai, 88, 1- 6
2005

Chromosome analysis of uncultured amniocytes by comparative genomic hybridization in early amniocentesis.

A. Ketupanya, N. Aranyakasemsuk, C. Tocharoentanaphol, C. Vuthiwong

OBJECTIVE: To study chromosome analysis by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) compared with the conventional technique in early amniocentesis. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Cross-sectional descriptive study design was performed in 32 singleton pregnant women with gestational age between 12-15 weeks. Transabdominal amniocentesis was carried out under ultrasound guidance. The amniotic fluid samples were simultaneously investigated using CGH and the conventional cytogenetics study as a gold standard. RESULTS: Amniocentesis were done for advanced maternal age in all cases. The mean maternal age was 35.8 years (35-42 years). The mean gestational age was 13.7 weeks (12-15 weeks). The chromosome analysis by CGH technique of uncultured amniocyte showed 17 normal female chromosomes (53.1%) and 15 normal male chromosomes (46.9%). This finding was the same as the conventional cytogenetics method. The mean duration of the CGH method was 6 days and that of the conventional cytogenetics method was 13.7 days (10-23 days). CONCLUSION: The CGH technique is a reliable technique for a rapid prenatal diagnosis of chromosome study in early gestation.

Int J Mol Med, 16, 463- 469
2005

Studies on the action of mitomycin C and bleomycin on telomere lengths of human lymphocyte chromosomes.

U. Wick, E. Gebhart

In order to address the problem of the action of cytostatics on chromosome ends, telomere length was measured in human lymphocyte cultures exposed to mitomycin C (MMC) and bleomycin (BLM). Telomere-specific PNA probes were used for the quantitative estimation of the relative telomere length of each individual chromosome by fluorescence in situ hybridization. A high inter-cellular and inter-individual variability of relative telomere lengths was found throughout all experiments. Different responses could be observed with respect to the action of the examined mutagens: The total average fluorescence intensity of labeled telomere repeats was decreased under the action of MMC in two of the experiments, while two revealed no significant alteration. BLM caused no significant change of total average telomeric signal intensity in four, a clear decrease in one of the six experiments, and an increase in another. Although all chromosome ends contributed to the observed trends, single telomeres were affected in a very distinct way. The highest concentration of MMC (1 microg/ml) induced significant shortening of telomeres of the chromosome arms; 2q, 3p, 5q, 7p, 10q, 11p, 13q, 17p, 18p&q, and 21q in two independent experiments. In one BLM experiment with 8 microg/ml, the most distinct decrease (p< or =0.005) of telomeric fluorescence was found at the ends of chromosome arms; 1q, 6p, 17p, 20p&q, and 22q. The increase of telomeric signal intensity affected the telomeres of some individual chromosome arms more than others, e.g. 4q, 6p, 7p, 8p, 13p, and 18q. Although the telomere length of the individual chromosome arms varied widely, clear trends could be observed with respect to the rank which was occupied by telomeric length of the various chromosome arms. The telomeres of the 1p, 3p, 4q, 5p, 12q, and 13q chromosome arms throughout all experiments were among the longest; and those of 13p, 15p, 21p, and 22p were among the shortest telomeres of the karyotype. From these data, it can be concluded that MMC affects the telomeric repeat area of chromosomes more than BLM, which mostly had no significant effect on telomere length in the performed experiments.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 46, 2253- 2257
2005

Concurrent loss of chromosome arm 1p and chromosome 3 predicts a decreased disease-free survival in uveal melanoma patients.

E. Kilic, N.C. Naus, van Gils, W., C.C. Klaver, van Til, M.E., M.M. Verbiest, T. Stijnen, C.M. Mooy, D. Paridaens, H.B. Beverloo, G.P. Luyten, de Klein, A.

PURPOSE: Uveal melanoma is a highly malignant disease with a mortality rate of 50% at 10 to 15 years. Previous studies have shown that chromosomal changes are associated with decreased survival of the patient. However, in these studies the small number of tumors analyzed did not allow robust statistical analysis. In the present study, the independent numerical changes in chromosomes 1, 3, 6, and 8 on disease-free survival (DFS) was assessed in a large series of patients with uveal melanoma. METHODS: One hundred twenty tumors from patients with uveal melanoma were analyzed for numerical changes in chromosomes 1, 3, 6, and 8, with cytogenetic analysis, fluorescent in situ hybridization, and/or comparative genomic hybridization. Data were correlated with disease outcome in univariate and multivariate analyses, by Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses. RESULTS: At a mean follow-up time of 45 months, 42 patients had died or had metastatic disease. In the univariate analysis, loss of chromosome 3, gain of 8q, largest tumor diameter, or the presence of epithelioid cells was associated with a decreased DFS. In the multivariate analysis, the effect of monosomy 3 on survival was largely modified by changes in 1p36. Regarding all chromosomal changes, only the concurrent loss of the short arm of chromosome 1 and all of chromosome 3 was an independent prognostic parameter for disease-free survival (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In uveal melanoma, concurrent loss of the short arm of chromosome 1 and all of chromosome 3 is an independent predictor of decreased DFS.

Int J Radiat Biol, 26, 1707- 1713
2005

Are telomeres a specific target for mutagenic attack by cytostatics in neoplastic cells?

U. Wick, E. Gebhart

Damage to telomeres induced by cytostatic therapy theoretically could generate telomere shortening and, subsequently, induce an additional genomic instability in neoplastic cells. Model experiments were carried out to examine this hypothesis. Cells of the T-ALL derived cell line CCRF-CEM were exposed to various different concentrations of Bleomycin (BLM) or Mitomycin C (MMC) for various times. Telomere lengths of metaphase chromosomes of the exposed cells were compared with those without this exposure (controls). In addition, telomerase activity was determined with a TRAP assay under the given conditions using the BLM experiments as a model. Although slight changes of total telomere length could be found in single experiments, the differences between exposed and non-exposed cells were not significant. Also, a considerable telomerase activity was shown which, however, did not substantially differ between exposed and non-exposed cells. From these data it may be concluded that, at least in the examined cell line, telomeres are not a preferential target for this kind of mutagenic attack.

Cancer research, 64, 6453- 6460
2004

Genomic and expression profiling of chromosome 17 in breast cancer reveals complex patterns of alterations and novel candidate genes

B. Orsetti, M. Nugoli, N. Cervera, L. Lasorsa, P. Chuchana, L. Ursule, C. Nguyen, R. Redon, du Manoir, S., C. Rodriguez, C. Theillet

Chromosome 17 is severely rearranged in breast cancer. Whereas the short arm undergoes frequent losses, the long arm harbors complex combinations of gains and losses. In this work we present a comprehensive study of quantitative anomalies at chromosome 17 by genomic array-comparative genomic hybridization and of associated RNA expression changes by cDNA arrays. We built a genomic array covering the entire chromosome at an average density of 1 clone per 0.5 Mb, and patterns of gains and losses were characterized in 30 breast cancer cell lines and 22 primary tumors. Genomic profiles indicated severe rearrangements. Compiling data from all samples, we subdivided chromosome 17 into 13 consensus segments: 4 regions showing mainly losses, 6 regions showing mainly gains, and 3 regions showing either gains or losses. Within these segments, smallest regions of overlap were defined (17 for gains and 16 for losses). Expression profiles were analyzed by means of cDNA arrays comprising 358 known genes at 17q. Comparison of expression changes with quantitative anomalies revealed that about half of the genes were consistently affected by copy number changes. We identified 85 genes overexpressed when gained (39 of which mapped within the smallest regions of overlap), 67 genes underexpressed when lost (32 of which mapped to minimal intervals of losses), and, interestingly, 32 genes showing reduced expression when gained. Candidate genes identified in this study belong to very diverse functional groups, and a number of them are novel candidates.

Int J Oncol, 24, 1279- 1288
2004

Molecular characterizations of derivatives of HCT116 colorectal cancer cells that are resistant to the chemotherapeutic agent 5-fluorouracil.

P.M. De Angelis, B. Fjell, K.L. Kravik, T. Haug, S.H. Tunheim, W. Reichelt, M. Beigi, O.P. Clausen, E. Galteland, T. Stokke

5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is the chemotherapeutic drug of choice for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer, but resistance to 5-FU remains a major obstacle to successful therapy. We generated 5-FU-resistant derivatives of the HCT116 human colon cancer cell line by serial passage of these cells in the presence of increasing 5-FU concentrations in an attempt to elucidate the biological mechanisms involved in resistance to 5-FU. Two resultant resistant derivatives, HCT116 ResB and ResD, were characterized for resistance phenotypes, genotypes, and gene expression using cells maintained long-term in 5-FU-free media. Compared to parental HCT116 cells that respond to 5-FU challenge by inducing high levels of apoptosis, ResB and ResD derivatives had significantly reduced apoptotic fractions when transiently challenged with 5-FU. ResB and ResD cells were respectively 27- and 121-fold more resistant to 5-FU, had increased doubling times, and significantly increased plating efficiencies compared to the parental cells. Both resistant derivatives retained the wild-type TP53 genotype, TP53 copy number and CGH profile characteristic of the parental line. Alterations in gene expression in the resistant derivatives compared to the parental line were assessed using oligonucleotide microarrays. Overall, the 5-FU-resistant derivatives were characterized by reduced apoptosis and a more aggressive growth phenotype, consistent with the observed up-regulation of apoptosis-inhibitory genes (e.g., IRAK1, MALT1, BIRC5), positive growth-regulatory genes (e.g., CCND3, CCNE2, CCNF, CYR61), and metastasis genes (e.g., LMNB1, F3, TMSNB), and down-regulation of apoptosis-promoting genes (e.g., BNIP3, BNIP3L, FOXO3A) and negative growth-regulatory genes (e.g., AREG, CCNG2, CDKN1A, CDKN1C, GADD45A). 5-FU metabolism-associated genes (e.g., TYMS, DTYMK, UP) and DNA repair genes (e.g., FEN1, FANCG, RAD23B) were also up-regulated in one or both resistant derivatives, suggesting that the resistant derivatives might be able to overcome both 5-FU inhibition of thymidylate synthase and the DNA damage caused by 5-FU, respectively. Development of 5-FU resistance thus appears to encompass deregulation of apoptosis-, proliferation-, DNA repair-, and metastasis-associated regulatory pathways.