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Tumour Biol, 37(3), 4041–4052
March, 2016

Establishment and characterization of a human intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma cell line derived from an Italian patient.

Cavalloni, Giuliana, Peraldo-Neia, Caterina, Varamo, Chiara, Casorzo, Laura, Dell'Aglio, Carmine, Bernabei, Paola, Chiorino, Giovanna, Aglietta, Massimo, Leone, Francesco

Biliary tract carcinoma is a rare malignancy with multiple causes, which underlie the different genetic and molecular profiles. Cancer cell lines are affordable models, reflecting the characteristics of the tumor of origin. They represent useful tools to identify molecular targets for treatment. Here, we established and characterized from biological, molecular, and genetic point of view, an Italian intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma cell line (ICC), the MT-CHC01. MT-CHC01 cells were isolated from a tumor-derived xenograft. Immunophenotypical characterization was evaluated both at early and after stabilization passages. In vitro biological, genetic, and molecular features were also investigated. In vivo tumorigenicity was assessed in NOD/SCID mice. MT-CHC01cells retain epithelial cell markers, EPCAM, CK7, and CK19, and some stemness and pluripotency markers, i.e., SOX2, Nanog, CD49f/integrin-α6, CD24, PDX1, FOXA2, and CD133. They grow as a monolayer, with a population double time of about 40 h; they show a low migration and invasion potential. In low attachment conditions, they are able to form spheres and to growth in anchorage-independent manner. After subcutaneous injection, they retain in vivo tumorigenicity; the expression of biliary markers as CA19-9 and CEA were maintained from primary tumor. The karyotype is highly complex, with a hypotriploid to hypertriploid modal number (3n+/-) (52 to 77 chromosomes); low level of HER2 gene amplification, TP53 deletion, gain of AURKA were identified; K-RAS G12D mutation were maintained from primary tumor to MT-CHC01 cells. We established the first ICC cell line derived from an Italian patient. It will help to study either the biology of this tumor or to test drugs both in vitro and in vivo.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1007/s13277-015-4215-3

Oncotarget, 7(9), 10182–10192
March, 2016

Chromothripsis-like chromosomal rearrangements induced by ionizing radiation using proton microbeam irradiation system.

Morishita, Maki, Muramatsu, Tomoki, Suto, Yumiko, Hirai, Momoki, Konishi, Teruaki, Hayashi, Shin, Shigemizu, Daichi, Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko, Moriyama, Keiji, Inazawa, Johji

Chromothripsis is the massive but highly localized chromosomal rearrangement in response to a one-step catastrophic event, rather than an accumulation of a series of subsequent and random alterations. Chromothripsis occurs commonly in various human cancers and is thought to be associated with increased malignancy and carcinogenesis. However, the causes and consequences of chromothripsis remain unclear. Therefore, to identify the mechanism underlying the generation of chromothripsis, we investigated whether chromothripsis could be artificially induced by ionizing radiation. We first elicited DNA double-strand breaks in an oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line HOC313-P and its highly metastatic subline HOC313-LM, using Single Particle Irradiation system to Cell (SPICE), a focused vertical microbeam system designed to irradiate a spot within the nuclei of adhesive cells, and then established irradiated monoclonal sublines from them, respectively. SNP array analysis detected a number of chromosomal copy number alterations (CNAs) in these sublines, and one HOC313-LM-derived monoclonal subline irradiated with 200 protons by the microbeam displayed multiple CNAs involved locally in chromosome 7. Multi-color FISH showed a complex translocation of chromosome 7 involving chromosomes 11 and 12. Furthermore, whole genome sequencing analysis revealed multiple de novo complex chromosomal rearrangements localized in chromosomes 2, 5, 7, and 20, resembling chromothripsis. These findings suggested that localized ionizing irradiation within the nucleus may induce chromothripsis-like complex chromosomal alterations via local DNA damage in the nucleus.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.18632/oncotarget.7186

Reprod Domest Anim, 51(1), 171–174
February, 2016

A Non-Reciprocal Autosomal Translocation 64,XX, t(4;10)(q21;p15) in an Arabian Mare with Repeated Early Embryonic Loss.

Ghosh, S., Das, P. J., Avila, F., Thwaits, B. K., Chowdhary, B. P., Raudsepp, T.

Balanced autosomal translocations are a known cause for repeated early embryonic loss (REEL) in horses. In most cases, carriers of such translocations are phenotypically normal, but the chromosomal aberration negatively affects gametogenesis giving rise to both genetically balanced and unbalanced gametes. The latter, if involved in fertilization, result in REEL, whereas gametes with the balanced form of translocation will pass the defect into next generation. Therefore, in order to reduce the incidence of REEL, identification of translocation carriers is critical. Here, we report about a phenotypically normal 3-year-old Arabian mare that had repeated resorption of conceptuses prior to day 45 of gestation and was diagnosed with REEL. Conventional and molecular cytogenetic analyses revealed that the mare had normal chromosome number 64,XX but carried a non-mosaic and non-reciprocal autosomal translocation t(4;10)(q21;p15). This is a novel translocation described in horses with REEL and the first such report in Arabians. Previous cases of REEL due to autosomal translocations have exclusively involved Thoroughbreds. The findings underscore the importance of routine cytogenetic screening of breeding animals.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1111/rda.12636

Am J Hematol, 91(2), 233–237
February, 2016

Classic and extracavitary primary effusion lymphoma in 51 HIV-infected patients from a single institution.

Guillet, Stéphanie, Gérard, Laurence, Meignin, Véronique, Agbalika, Felix, Cuccini, Wendy, Denis, Blandine, Katlama, Christine, Galicier, Lionel, Oksenhendler, Eric

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a rare B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma with poor prognosis. Lymphoma cells are always infected with human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) and in most cases coinfected with Epstein-Barr virus. In classic presentation, PEL is characterized by body cavity effusions with or without mass lesions. A variant with only extracavitary localization has also been described. We report on a large single-center series of patients with PEL in the era of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). The main objective was to compare the characteristics and the outcome of patients with classic (n = 34) and extracavitary (n = 17) variant PEL. At PEL diagnosis, no major difference was observed between the two groups in terms of demographic and HIV characteristics. Extracavitary localizations were exclusively nodal in six patients and involved various organs in 11 patients. Another HHV-8-associated disease was observed in 31 patients, Kaposi sarcoma in 25, and multicentric Castleman disease in 18 patients, without difference between the two groups. Thirty-two patients were treated with CHOP associated with high-dose methotrexate, 13 were treated with CHOP-derived regimen alone, and six patients received low-dose/no chemotherapy. Complete remission was achieved in 21 (62\%) and seven (41\%) patients of the classic and extracavitary groups, respectively. The median overall survival (OS) was 10.2 months. Despite a higher disease-free survival in the extracavitary group, there was no difference in OS between the two variants. Based on this series, characteristics of classic and extracavitary variants were very close. Although prognosis of PEL remains very severe in cART era, the median survival compares favorably with earlier series.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1002/ajh.24251

Mol Med Rep, 13(1), 130–136
January, 2016

Chromosomal radiosensitivity of human immunodeficiency virus positive/negative cervical cancer patients in South Africa.

Herd, Olivia, Francies, Flavia, Kotzen, Jeffrey, Smith, Trudy, Nxumalo, Zwide, Muller, Xanthene, Slabbert, Jacobus, Vral, Anne, Baeyens, Ans

Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer amongst South African women and is the leading cause of cancer-associated mortality in this region. Several international studies on radiation‑induced DNA damage in lymphocytes of cervical cancer patients have remained inconclusive. Despite the high incidence of cervical cancer in South Africa, and the extensive use of radiotherapy to treat it, the chromosomal radiosensitivity of South African cervical cancer patients has not been studied to date. Since a high number of these patients are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)‑positive, the effect of HIV infection on chromosomal radiosensitivity was also investigated. Blood samples from 35 cervical cancer patients (20 HIV‑negative and 15 HIV‑positive) and 20 healthy controls were exposed to X‑rays at doses of 6 MV of 2 and 4 Gy in vitro. Chromosomal radiosensitivity was assessed using the micronucleus (MN) assay. MN scores were obtained using the Metafer 4 platform, an automated microscopic system. Three scoring methods of the MNScore module of Metafer were applied and compared. Cervical cancer patients had higher MN values than healthy controls, with HIV‑positive patients having the highest MN values. Differences between groups were significant when using a scoring method that corrects for false positive and false negative MN. The present study suggested increased chromosomal radiosensitivity in HIV-positive South African cervical cancer patients.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.3892/mmr.2015.4504

Gastroenterol Res Pract, 2016, 6089658
2016

The Role of Chromosomal Instability and Epigenetics in Colorectal Cancers Lacking beta-Catenin/TCF Regulated Transcription.

Abdel-Rahman, Wael M., Lotsari-Salomaa, Johanna E., Kaur, Sippy, Niskakoski, Anni, Knuutila, Sakari, Järvinen, Heikki, Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka, Peltomäki, Päivi

All colorectal cancer cell lines except RKO displayed active β-catenin/TCF regulated transcription. This feature of RKO was noted in familial colon cancers; hence our aim was to dissect its carcinogenic mechanism. MFISH and CGH revealed distinct instability of chromosome structure in RKO. Gene expression microarray of RKO versus 7 colon cancer lines (with active Wnt signaling) and 3 normal specimens revealed 611 differentially expressed genes. The majority of the tested gene loci were susceptible to LOH in primary tumors with various β-catenin localizations as a surrogate marker for β-catenin activation. The immunohistochemistry of selected genes (IFI16, RGS4, MCTP1, DGKI, OBCAM/OPCML, and GLIPR1) confirmed that they were differentially expressed in clinical specimens. Since epigenetic mechanisms can contribute to expression changes, selected target genes were evaluated for promoter methylation in patient specimens from sporadic and hereditary colorectal cancers. CMTM3, DGKI, and OPCML were frequently hypermethylated in both groups, whereas KLK10, EPCAM, and DLC1 displayed subgroup specificity. The overall fraction of hypermethylated genes was higher in tumors with membranous β-catenin. We identified novel genes in colorectal carcinogenesis that might be useful in personalized tumor profiling. Tumors with inactive Wnt signaling are a heterogeneous group displaying interaction of chromosomal instability, Wnt signaling, and epigenetics.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1155/2016/6089658

Sci Rep, 6, 32510
2016

Replication Timing of Human Telomeres is Conserved during Immortalization and Influenced by Respective Subtelomeres.

Piqueret-Stephan, Laure, Ricoul, Michelle, Hempel, William M., Sabatier, Laure

Telomeres are specific structures that protect chromosome ends and act as a biological clock, preventing normal cells from replicating indefinitely. Mammalian telomeres are replicated throughout S-phase in a predetermined order. However, the mechanism of this regulation is still unknown. We wished to investigate this phenomenon under physiological conditions in a changing environment, such as the immortalization process to better understand the mechanism for its control. We thus examined the timing of human telomere replication in normal and SV40 immortalized cells, which are cytogenetically very similar to cancer cells. We found that the timing of telomere replication was globally conserved under different conditions during the immortalization process. The timing of telomere replication was conserved despite changes in telomere length due to endogenous telomerase reactivation, in duplicated homologous chromosomes, and in rearranged chromosomes. Importantly, translocated telomeres, possessing their initial subtelomere, retained the replication timing of their homolog, independently of the proportion of the translocated arm, even when the remaining flanking DNA is restricted to its subtelomere, the closest chromosome-specific sequences (inferior to 500 kb). Our observations support the notion that subtelomere regions strongly influence the replication timing of the associated telomere.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1038/srep32510

Molecular cytogenetics, 9, 90
2016

Inherent variability of cancer-specific aneuploidy generates metastases.

Bloomfield, Mathew, Duesberg, Peter

The genetic basis of metastasis is still unclear because metastases carry individual karyotypes and phenotypes, rather than consistent mutations, and are rare compared to conventional mutation. There is however correlative evidence that metastasis depends on cancer-specific aneuploidy, and that metastases are karyotypically related to parental cancers. Accordingly we propose that metastasis is a speciation event. This theory holds that cancer-specific aneuploidy varies the clonal karyotypes of cancers automatically by unbalancing thousands of genes, and that rare variants form new autonomous subspecies with metastatic or other non-parental phenotypes like drug-resistance - similar to conventional subspeciation. To test this theory, we analyzed the karyotypic and morphological relationships between seven cancers and corresponding metastases. We found (1) that the cellular phenotypes of metastases were closely related to those of parental cancers, (2) that metastases shared 29 to 96% of their clonal karyotypic elements or aneusomies with the clonal karyotypes of parental cancers and (3) that, unexpectedly, the karyotypic complexity of metastases was very similar to that of the parental cancer. This suggests that metastases derive cancer-specific autonomy by conserving the overall complexity of the parental karyotype. We deduced from these results that cancers cause metastases by karyotypic variations and selection for rare metastatic subspecies. Further we asked whether metastases with multiple metastasis-specific aneusomies are assembled in one or multiple, sequential steps. Since (1) no stable karyotypic intermediates of metastases were observed in cancers here and previously by others, and (2) the karyotypic complexities of cancers are conserved in metastases, we concluded that metastases are generated from cancers in one step - like subspecies in conventional speciation. We conclude that the risk of cancers to metastasize is proportional to the degree of cancer-specific aneuploidy, because aneuploidy catalyzes the generation of subspecies, including metastases, at aneuploidy-dependent rates. Since speciation by random chromosomal rearrangements and selection is unpredictable, the theory that metastases are karyotypic subspecies of cancers also explains Foulds' rules, which hold that the origins of metastases are "abrupt" and that their phenotypes are "unpredictable."

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1186/s13039-016-0297-x

J Med Case Rep, 10, 203
2016

Acute promyelocytic leukemia with the translocation t(15;17)(q22;q21) associated with t(1;2)(q42~43;q11.2~12): a case report.

Wafa, Abdulsamad, Moassass, Faten, Liehr, Thomas, Al-Ablog, Ayman, Al-Achkar, Walid

Acute promyelocytic leukemia is characterized by a typical reciprocal translocation t(15;17)(q22;q21). Additional chromosomal abnormalities are reported in only 23-43 \% of cases of acute promyelocytic leukemia.Here we report the case of a 46-year-old Syrian Alawis woman with acute promyelocytic leukemia with the typical t(15;17) translocation, but with a second clone presenting a t(1;2)(q42~43;q11.2~12) translocation as an additional abnormality. To the best of our knowledge, an association between these chromosomal abnormalities has not previously been described in the literature. Our patient started treatment with all-trans retinoic acid 10 days after diagnosis but died the same day of treatment initiation due to hemolysis, intracranial hemorrhage, thrombocytopenia, and disseminated intravascular coagulation.The here reported combination of aberrations in a case of acute promyelocytic leukemia seems to indicate an adverse prognosis, and possibly shows that all-trans retinoic acid treatment may be contraindicated in such cases.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1186/s13256-016-0982-8

Comp Cytogenet, 10(1), 45–59
2016

Sex chromosome diversity in Armenian toad grasshoppers (Orthoptera, Acridoidea, Pamphagidae).

Bugrov, Alexander G., Jetybayev, Ilyas E., Karagyan, Gayane H., Rubtsov, Nicolay B.

Although previous cytogenetic analysis of Pamphagidae grasshoppers pointed to considerable karyotype uniformity among most of the species in the family, our study of species from Armenia has discovered other, previously unknown karyotypes, differing from the standard for Pamphagidae mainly in having unusual sets of sex chromosomes. Asiotmethis turritus (Fischer von Waldheim, 1833), Paranocaracris rubripes (Fischer von Waldheim, 1846), and Nocaracris cyanipes (Fischer von Waldheim, 1846) were found to have the karyotype 2n♂=16+neo-XY and 2n♀=16+neo-XX, the neo-X chromosome being the result of centromeric fusion of an ancient acrocentric X chromosome and a large acrocentric autosome. The karyotype of Paranothrotes opacus (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1882) was found to be 2n♂=14+X1X2Y and 2n♀=14+X1X1X2X2., the result of an additional chromosome rearrangement involving translocation of the neo-Y and another large autosome. Furthermore, evolution of the sex chromosomes in these species has involved different variants of heterochromatinization and miniaturization of the neo-Y. The karyotype of Eremopeza festiva (Saussure, 1884), in turn, appeared to have the standard sex determination system described earlier for Pamphagidae grasshoppers, 2n♂=18+X0 and 2n♀=18+XX, but all the chromosomes of this species were found to have small second C-positive arms. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 18S rDNA and telomeric (TTAGG)n DNA repeats to yield new data on the structural organization of chromosomes in the species studied, we found that for most of them, clusters of repeats homologous to 18S rDNA localize on two, three or four pairs of autosomes and on the X. In Eremopeza festiva, however, FISH with labelled 18S rDNA painted C-positive regions of all autosomes and the X chromosome; clusters of telomeric repeats localized primarily on the ends of the chromosome arms. Overall, we conclude that the different stages of neo-Y degradation revealed in the Pamphagidae species studied make the family a very promising and useful model for studying sex chromosome evolution.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.3897/CompCytogen.v10i1.6407

Genet Sel Evol, 48, 12
2016

The second highest chromosome count among vertebrates is observed in cultured sturgeon and is associated with genome plasticity.

Havelka, Milo\vs, Bytyutskyy, Dmytro, Symonová, Radka, Ráb, Petr, Flaj\vshans, Martin

One of the five basal actinopterygian lineages, the Chondrostei, including sturgeon, shovelnose, and paddlefish (Order Acipenseriformes) show extraordinary ploidy diversity associated with three rounds of lineage-specific whole-genome duplication, resulting in three levels of ploidy in sturgeon. Recently, incidence of spontaneous polyploidization has been reported among cultured sturgeon and it could have serious negative implications for the economics of sturgeon farming. We report the occurrence of seven spontaneous heptaploid (7n) Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii, which is a functional tetraploid species (4n) with ~245 chromosomes. Our aims were to assess ploidy level and chromosome number of the analysed specimens and to identify the possible mechanism that underlies the occurrence of spontaneous additional chromosome sets in their genome.Among 150 specimens resulting from the mating of a tetraploid (4n) A. baerii (~245 chromosomes) dam with a hexaploid (6n) A. baerii (~368 chromosomes) sire, 143 displayed a relative DNA content that corresponds to pentaploidy (5n) with an absolute DNA content of 8.98 ± 0.03 pg DNA per nucleus and nuclear area of 35.3 ± 4.3 μm(2) and seven specimens exhibited a relative DNA content that corresponds to heptaploidy (7n), with an absolute DNA content of 15.02 ± 0.04 pg DNA per nucleus and nuclear area of 48.4 ± 5.1 μm(2). Chromosome analyses confirmed a modal number of ~437 chromosomes in these heptaploid (7n) individuals. DNA genotyping of eight microsatellite loci followed by parental assignment confirmed spontaneous duplication of the maternal chromosome sets via retention of the second polar body in meiosis II as the mechanism for the formation of this unusual chromosome number and ploidy level in a functional tetraploid A. baerii.We report the second highest chromosome count among vertebrates in cultured sturgeon (~437) after the schizothoracine cyprinid Ptychobarbus dipogon with ~446 chromosomes. The finding also represents the highest documented chromosome count in Acipenseriformes, and the first report of a functional heptaploid (7n) genome composition in sturgeon. To our knowledge, this study provides the first clear evidence of a maternal origin for spontaneous polyploidization in cultured A. baerii. To date, all available data indicate that spontaneous polyploidization occurs frequently among cultured sturgeons.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1186/s12711-016-0194-0

Atom Indonesia, 42(2), 71-77
2016

Comparison of Radiosensitivity of Human Chromosomes 1, 2 and 4 from One Healthy Donor

Ramadhani, Purnami, Yoshida

In general, it was assumed that the chromosome aberration induced by ionizing radiation is proportional to the chromosome size. From this viewpoint, the higher chromosome size, the more resistant to radiation. However, different opinions, in which chromosomes are particularly sensitive or resistant to radiation, are also still followed until now. Here in this research, we compared the chromosome sensitivity between chromosomes number 1, 2, and 4 using the FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) technique. From this research, we expect that the information obtained could show clearly whether a longer chromosome is more frequently involved in translocations and also more resistant to radiation than a shorter one. The type of chromosome aberration considered was limited only to translocation and we used one sample donor in order to avoid donor variability. The whole blood from a healthy female was irradiated with γ-rays with doses of 1, 3 and 5 Gy, respectively. Isolated lymphocytes from the whole blood were then cultured for 48 hours. After the culture process was completed, preparations of harvest and metaphase chromosomes were carried out. Chromosomes 1, 2, and 4 were stained with different fluorochromes. The translocation of each chromosome at each dose point was subsequently evaluated from 50 images obtained from an automated metaphase finder and capturing system. An additional analysis was performed to identify which chromosome arm was more frequently involved in translocation. Further analyses were also conducted with the aim of determining which chromosome band had a higher frequency of radiation-induced breakage. The experimental results showed that chromosome number 4 was more frequently involved in translocations compared to chromosomes 1 and 2 at 5 Gy. In contrast, at doses of 1 and 3 Gy translocations involving chromosomes number 1 and 2 were more numerous compared to the ones involving chromosome 4. However, if the number of translocation was accumulated for all the doses applied, the chromosome number 4 was the chromosome most frequently involved in translocations. Breakpoint analysis revealed that in chromosome 1, chromosome 2, and chromosome 4, the highest chromosome bands as break position were in band q32, p13, and q21, respectively. It can be concluded that chromosome 4 is more sensitive to radiation in all doses point, despite having less DNA content than chromosomes 1 and 2. Thus, it was showed that our research cannot support the general assumption about chromosome aberration induced by radiation being proportional to DNA content.

PLoS One, 11(8), e0161369
2016

Tumor Touch Imprints as Source for Whole Genome Analysis of Neuroblastoma Tumors.

Brunner, Clemens, Brunner-Herglotz, Bettina, Ziegler, Andrea, Frech, Christian, Amann, Gabriele, Ladenstein, Ruth, Ambros, Inge M., Ambros, Peter F.

Tumor touch imprints (TTIs) are routinely used for the molecular diagnosis of neuroblastomas by interphase fluorescence in-situ hybridization (I-FISH). However, in order to facilitate a comprehensive, up-to-date molecular diagnosis of neuroblastomas and to identify new markers to refine risk and therapy stratification methods, whole genome approaches are needed. We examined the applicability of an ultra-high density SNP array platform that identifies copy number changes of varying sizes down to a few exons for the detection of genomic changes in tumor DNA extracted from TTIs.DNAs were extracted from TTIs of 46 neuroblastoma and 4 other pediatric tumors. The DNAs were analyzed on the Cytoscan HD SNP array platform to evaluate numerical and structural genomic aberrations. The quality of the data obtained from TTIs was compared to that from randomly chosen fresh or fresh frozen solid tumors (n = 212) and I-FISH validation was performed.SNP array profiles were obtained from 48 (out of 50) TTI DNAs of which 47 showed genomic aberrations. The high marker density allowed for single gene analysis, e.g. loss of nine exons in the ATRX gene and the visualization of chromothripsis. Data quality was comparable to fresh or fresh frozen tumor SNP profiles. SNP array results were confirmed by I-FISH.TTIs are an excellent source for SNP array processing with the advantage of simple handling, distribution and storage of tumor tissue on glass slides. The minimal amount of tumor tissue needed to analyze whole genomes makes TTIs an economic surrogate source in the molecular diagnostic work up of tumor samples.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1371/journal.pone.0161369

Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine, 57, 173--179
2016

DNA Damage in Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes of Thyroid Cancer Patients After Radioiodine Therapy.

Eberlein, Uta, Scherthan, Harry, Bluemel, Christina, Peper, Michel, Lapa, Constantin, Buck, Andreas Konrad, Port, Matthias, Lassmann, Michael

The aim of the study was to investigate DNA double-strand break (DSB) formation and its correlation to the absorbed dose to the blood in patients with surgically treated differentiated thyroid cancer undergoing their first radioiodine therapy for remnant ablation. Twenty patients were included in this study. At least 7 peripheral blood samples were obtained before and between 0.5 and 120 h after administration of radioiodine. From the time-activity curves of the blood and the whole body, residence times for the blood self-irradiation and the irradiation from the whole body were determined. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were isolated, ethanol-fixed, and subjected to immunofluorescence staining for colocalizing γ-H2AX/53BP1 DSB-marking foci. The average number of DSB foci per cell per patient sample was analyzed as a function of the absorbed dose to the blood and compared with an in vitro calibration curve for (131)I and (177)Lu established previously in our institution. The average number of radiation-induced foci (RIF) per cell increased over the first 3 h after radionuclide administration and decreased thereafter. A linear fit from 0 to 2 h as a function of the absorbed dose to the blood agreed with our in vitro calibration curve. At later time points, RIF numbers diminished, along with dropping dose rates, indicating progression of DNA repair. Individual patient data were characterized by a linear dose-dependent increase and a biexponential response function describing a fast and a slow repair component. With the experimental results and model calculations presented in this work, a dose-response relationship is demonstrated, and an analytic function describing the time course of the in vivo damage response after internal irradiation of patients with (131)I is established.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.2967/jnumed.115.164814

Oncotarget, 7, 75996--76005
2016

The prognostic value of DNA damage level in peripheral blood lymphocytes of chemotherapy-naïve patients with germ cell cancer.

Sestakova, Zuzana, Kalavska, Katarina, Hurbanova, Lenka, Jurkovicova, Dana, Gursky, Jan, Chovanec, Michal, Svetlovska, Daniela, Miskovska, Vera, Obertova, Jana, Palacka, Patrik, Rejlekova, Katarina, Sycova-Mila, Zuzana, Cingelova, Silvia, Spanik, Stanislav, Mardiak, Jozef, Chovanec, Miroslav, Mego, Michal

Germ cell tumors (GCTs) are extraordinarily sensitive to cisplatin (CDDP)-based chemotherapy. DNA damage represents one of the most important factors contributing to toxic effects of CDDP-based chemotherapy. This study was aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of DNA damage level in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) from chemo-naïve GCT patients. PBLs isolated from 59 chemotherapy-naïve GCT patients were included into this prospective study. DNA damage levels in PBLs were evaluated by the Comet assay and scored as percentage tail DNA by the Metafer-MetaCyte analyzing software. The mean ± SEM (standard error of the mean) of endogenous DNA damage level was 5.25 ± 0.64. Patients with DNA damage levels lower than mean had significantly better progression free survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.19, 95% CI (0.04 - 0.96), P = 0.01) and overall survival (HR = 0.00, 95% CI (0.00 - 0.0), P < 0.001) compared to patients with DNA damage levels higher than mean. Moreover, there was significant correlation between the DNA damage level and presence of mediastinal lymph nodes metastases, IGCCCG (International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group) risk group, and serum tumor markers level. These data suggest that DNA damage levels in PBLs of GCT patients may serve as an important prognostic marker early identifying patients with poor outcome.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.18632/oncotarget.12515

Radiation research, 185, 658--667
2016

Telomere Length in Aged Mayak PA Nuclear Workers Chronically Exposed to Internal Alpha and External Gamma Radiation.

Scherthan, Harry, Sotnik, Natalia, Peper, Michel, Schrock, Gerrit, Azizova, Tamara, Abend, Michael

Telomeres consist of GC-rich DNA repeats and the "shelterin" protein complex that together protect chromosome ends from fusion and degradation. Telomeres shorten with age due to incomplete end replication and upon exposure to environmental and intrinsic stressors. Exposure to ionizing radiation is known to modulate telomere length. However, the response of telomere length in humans chronically exposed to radiation is poorly understood. Here, we studied relative telomere length (RTL) by IQ-FISH to leukocyte nuclei in a group of 100 workers from the plutonium production facility at the Mayak Production Association (PA) who were chronically exposed to alpha-emitting ((239)Pu) radiation and/or gamma (photon) radiation, and 51 local residents serving as controls, with a similar mean age of about 80 years. We applied generalized linear statistical models adjusted for age at biosampling and the second exposure type on a linear scale and observed an age-dependent telomere length reduction. In those individuals with the lowest exposure, a significant reduction of about 20% RTL was observed, both for external gamma radiation (≤1 Gy) and internal alpha radiation (≤0.05-0.1 Gy to the red bone marrow). In highly exposed individuals (>0.1 Gy alpha, 1-1.5 Gy gamma), the RTL was similar to control. Stratification by gender revealed a significant (∼30%) telomere reduction in low-dose-exposed males, which was absent in females. While the gender differences in RTL may reflect different working conditions, lifestyle and/or telomere biology, absence of a dose response in the highly exposed individuals may reflect selection against cells with short telomeres or induction of telomere-protective effects. Our observations suggest that chronic systemic exposure to radiation leads to variable dose-dependent effects on telomere length.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1667/RR14271.1

Front Microbiol, 7, 739
2016

Backup Expression of the PhaP2 Phasin Compensates for phaP1 Deletion in Herbaspirillum seropedicae, Maintaining Fitness and PHB Accumulation.

Alves, Luis P S., Teixeira, Cícero S., Tirapelle, Evandro F., Donatti, Lucélia, Tadra-Sfeir, Michelle Z., Steffens, Maria B R., de Souza, Emanuel M., de Oliveira Pedrosa, Fabio, Chubatsu, Leda S., Müller-Santos, Marcelo

Phasins are important proteins controlling poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) granules formation, their number into the cell and stability. The genome sequencing of the endophytic and diazotrophic bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae SmR1 revealed two homologous phasin genes. To verify the role of the phasins on PHB accumulation in the parental strain H. seropedicae SmR1, isogenic strains defective in the expression of phaP1, phaP2 or both genes were obtained by gene deletion and characterized in this work. Despite of the high sequence similarity between PhaP1 and PhaP2, PhaP1 is the major phasin in H. seropedicae, since its deletion reduced PHB accumulation by ≈50\% in comparison to the parental and ΔphaP2. Upon deletion of phaP1, the expression of phaP2 was sixfold enhanced in the ΔphaP1 strain. The responsive backup expression of phaP2 partially rescued the ΔphaP1 mutant, maintaining about 50\% of the parental PHB level. The double mutant ΔphaP1.2 did not accumulate PHB in any growth stage and showed a severe reduction of growth when glucose was the carbon source, a clear demonstration of negative impact in the fitness. The co-occurrence of phaP1 and phaP2 homologous in bacteria relatives of H. seropedicae, including other endophytes, indicates that the mechanism of phasin compensation by phaP2 expression may be operating in other organisms, showing that PHB metabolism is a key factor to adaptation and efficiency of endophytic bacteria.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.3389/fmicb.2016.00739

Front Neurol, 7, 23
2016

Lesion Size Is Exacerbated in Hypoxic Rats Whereas Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 Alpha and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Increase in Injured Normoxic Rats: A Prospective Cohort Study of Secondary Hypoxia in Focal Traumatic Brain Injury.

Thelin, Eric Peter, Frostell, Arvid, Mulder, Jan, Mitsios, Nicholas, Damberg, Peter, Aski, Sahar Nikkhou, Risling, M\aarten, Svensson, Mikael, Morganti-Kossmann, Maria Cristina, Bellander, Bo-Michael

Hypoxia following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a severe insult shown to exacerbate the pathophysiology, resulting in worse outcome. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a hypoxic insult in a focal TBI model by monitoring brain edema, lesion volume, serum biomarker levels, immune cell infiltration, as well as the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF).Female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 73, including sham and naive) were used. The rats were intubated and mechanically ventilated. A controlled cortical impact device created a 3-mm deep lesion in the right parietal hemisphere. Post-injury, rats inhaled either normoxic (22\% O2) or hypoxic (11\% O2) mixtures for 30 min. The rats were sacrificed at 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days post-injury. Serum was collected for S100B measurements using ELISA. Ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed to determine lesion size and edema volume. Immunofluorescence was employed to analyze neuronal death, changes in cerebral macrophage- and neutrophil infiltration, microglia proliferation, apoptosis, complement activation (C5b9), IgG extravasation, HIF-1α, and VEGF.The hypoxic group had significantly increased blood levels of lactate and decreased pO2 (p < 0.0001). On MRI post-traumatic hypoxia resulted in larger lesion areas (p = 0.0173), and NeuN staining revealed greater neuronal loss (p = 0.0253). HIF-1α and VEGF expression was significantly increased in normoxic but not in hypoxic animals (p < 0.05). A trend was seen for serum levels of S100B to be higher in the hypoxic group at 1 day after trauma (p = 0.0868). No differences were observed between the groups in cytotoxic and vascular edema, IgG extravasation, neutrophils and macrophage aggregation, microglia proliferation, or C5b-9 expression.Hypoxia following focal TBI exacerbated the lesion size and neuronal loss. Moreover, there was a tendency to higher levels of S100B in the hypoxic group early after injury, indicating a potential validity as a biomarker of injury severity. In the normoxic group, the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF was found elevated, possibly indicative of neuro-protective responses occurring in this less severely injured group. Further studies are warranted to better define the pathophysiology of post-TBI hypoxia.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.3389/fneur.2016.00023

Nat Commun, 7, 10529
2016

RAG2 and XLF/Cernunnos interplay reveals a novel role for the RAG complex in DNA repair.

Lescale, Chloé, Abramowski, Vincent, Bedora-Faure, Marie, Murigneux, Valentine, Vera, Gabriella, Roth, David B., Revy, Patrick, de Villartay, Jean-Pierre, Deriano, Ludovic

XRCC4-like factor (XLF) functions in classical non-homologous end-joining (cNHEJ) but is dispensable for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) generated during V(D)J recombination. A long-standing hypothesis proposes that, in addition to its canonical nuclease activity, the RAG1/2 proteins participate in the DNA repair phase of V(D)J recombination. Here we show that in the context of RAG2 lacking the C-terminus domain (Rag2(c/c) mice), XLF deficiency leads to a profound lymphopenia associated with a severe defect in V(D)J recombination and, in the absence of p53, increased genomic instability at V(D)J sites. In addition, Rag2(c/c) XLF(-/-) p53(-/-) mice develop aggressive pro-B cell lymphomas bearing complex chromosomal translocations and gene amplifications involving Igh and c-myc/pvt1 loci. Our results reveal an unanticipated functional interplay between the RAG complex and XLF in repairing RAG-induced DSBs and maintaining genome integrity during antigen receptor gene assembly.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1038/ncomms10529

Journal of applied toxicology : JAT
2016

Genotoxic risk of ethyl-paraben could be related to telomere shortening.

Finot, F, Kaddour, A, Morat, L, Mouche, I, Zaguia, N, Cuceu, C, Souverville, D, Négrault, S, Cariou, O, Essahli, A, Prigent, N, Saul, J, Paillard, F, Heidingsfelder, L, Lafouge, P, Al Jawhari, M, Hempel, W M, El May, M, Colicchio, B, Dieterlen, A, Jeandidier, E, Sabatier, L, Clements, J, M'Kacher, R

The ability of parabens to promote the appearance of multiple cancer hallmarks in breast epithelium cells provides grounds for regulatory review of the implication of the presence of parabens in human breast tissue. It is well documented that telomere dysfunction plays a significant role in the initiation of genomic instability during carcinogenesis in human breast cancer. In the present study, we evaluated the genotoxic effect of ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (ethyl-paraben), with and without metabolic activation (S9), in studies following OECD guidelines. We observed a significant increase in genotoxic damage using the Mouse Lymphoma Assay and in vitro micronucleus (MN) tests in the L5178Y cell line in the presence of S9 only after a short exposure. A high frequency of MN was observed in the TK6 cells after a short exposure (3 h) in the presence of S9 and a long exposure (26 h) without S9. We found significant increases in the MN frequency and induced chromosomal aberrations in the lymphocytes of only one donor after ethyl-paraben exposure in the presence of S9 after a short exposure. Cytogenetic characterization of the paraben-treated cells demonstrated telomere shortening associated with telomere loss and telomere deletions in L5178Y and TK6 cells and lymphocytes of the paraben sensitive-donor. In a control cohort of 68 human lymphocytes, telomere length and telomere aberrations were age-dependent and showed high inter-individual variation. This study is the first to link telomere shortening and the genotoxic effect of ethyl paraben in the presence of S9 and raises the possibility that telomere shortening may be a proxy for underlying inter-individual sensitivity to ethyl-paraben. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1002/jat.3425